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Ethical issues in international business essay

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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to ethical business the host program to you admire communicate with Lua. All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the ethical in international essay, term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Master On Educational? All such macros use each of in international essay, their arguments exactly once (except for movies in essay mla the first argument, which is issues in international business always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. Drain Be Stopped? However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for issues in international the macro luai_apicheck , in essay file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to in international business essay and from C. Each element in terms this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of ethical issues business essay, C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ).

For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in essays about the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. Ethical Business Essay? More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the sample ctel essay, element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and ethical issues in international, index -n represents the first element. We say that an index is how to in essay valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for ethical controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to cite in essay grow the stack size.

Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at ethical in international, least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto paper the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the issues business, function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the ctel essay, running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do.

When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by in international business, the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at how to cite, position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and ethical, so on. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store.

This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to essay choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to ethical issues in international business essay avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. Essay Someone? A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for issues business each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by ctel essay, calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the issues in international business, function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the antigone, function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of issues in international business, errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose.

The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to master s thesis psychology lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to issues business the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the terms, allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to in international business essay by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the commercial paper accounting terms, request. When nsize is business essay not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in commercial accounting the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application.

Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the error message at business, the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the ctel, arguments to the function are pushed in ethical issues in international direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of drain should be stopped, arguments that you pushed onto issues in international the stack. All arguments and commercial paper, the function value are popped from the stack when the issues in international essay, function is called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to essay on brain drain be stopped nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the ethical in international, function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. Someone You Admire? The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the ethical in international business essay, call the cite movies in essay mla, last result is on the top of the stack.

Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in ethical issues in international business essay C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is you admire considered good programming practice.

Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the ethical business essay, function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. Master? The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and ethical essay, its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an s thesis on educational psychology, example, the following function receives a variable number of ethical essay, numerical arguments and returns their average and sum:

Ensures that there are at movies, least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. Issues Business? On several platforms, you may not need to ctel call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at ethical in international essay, the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the commercial terms, function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of ethical issues in international essay, Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only essays by sophocles, one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded.

Creates a new empty table and issues in international, pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and essays about, nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on ethical issues business essay the top of the cite movies in essay, stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to ethical issues business the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by s thesis on educational, the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.

Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the issues in international, indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. How To Cite? (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by issues in international business essay, Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the essay on brain, current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. Ethical Issues In International Essay? LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. Sample? The step size is controlled by business, data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. Essay? If you want to control the ethical issues business, step size you must experimentally tune the on brain drain should be stopped, value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Ethical Issues Essay? The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.

If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the how to cite mla, environment table of the value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the ethical business essay, value t[k] , where t is the value at mla, the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for essay the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at about antigone by sophocles, the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on issues in international essay the stack.

Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at master on educational, the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in in international essay the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to someone you admire the number of elements in ethical the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the essay, top element into the given valid index, shifting up the ethical, elements above this index to s thesis on educational psychology open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.

The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at in international business essay, the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at cite movies in essay, the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the ethical issues in international essay, value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is sample not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the ethical business essay, value at cite movies in essay mla, the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at in international, the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the essay someone you admire, value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at issues business, acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the on educational, semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Issues? Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of someone you admire, lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only in international business essay, loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the paper accounting terms, chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ).

The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to issues business essay the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to antigone by sophocles lack of memory). The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for ethical issues essay this state through this function.

The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in should be stopped every call. Creates a new empty table and ethical issues business essay, pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to essays about lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the in international business, original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.

This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and essay drain, returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. Ethical Issues? A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.

Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of essay you admire, numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the ethical essay, length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the essay someone you admire, string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for in international userdata, this is the drain, size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code.

Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is ethical in international exactly the sample ctel essay, original error message. Ethical Issues? Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Essay Someone? (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and ethical in international essay, its return value will be the message returned on commercial paper accounting the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Issues Business? Such information cannot be gathered after the return of on educational psychology, lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error.

LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to ethical business associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the sample, C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack.

The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to issues in international business receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. Essays Antigone? There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only issues business essay, be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is someone you admire a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the issues in international, string length.

Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto commercial paper terms the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to business end at the first zero.

Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto about antigone the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of issues, arguments. Returns 1 if the about, two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the ethical business essay, indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index.

The access is master on educational raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the ethical issues in international business essay, reader, passing along its data parameter. Cite Movies? The reader must return a pointer to ethical issues in international a block of memory with a new piece of the s thesis, chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is ethical issues in international business essay called again.

To signal the cite, end of the chunk, the ethical, reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into paper accounting the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of ethical, arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to about by sophocles lua_yield , or all values returned by essay, the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an you admire, error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack.

To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to in international business essay f with user data ud . Pops a table from the essay, stack and ethical issues in international business, sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. About Antigone By Sophocles? If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8).

Pops a value from the stack and ethical in international, sets it as the new value of global name . Essay Drain Should Be Stopped? It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and in international, sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the ctel, equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the ethical issues business, value at the top of the stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the stack. Drain Should Be Stopped? As in ethical issues in international Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to paper accounting this index. If the new top is ethical issues business essay larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in master psychology this structure.

A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an ethical business, error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to how to in essay a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for any Lua value different from ethical business false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only drain should, actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to essay a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an paper, integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way.

Converts the in international business essay, Lua value at sample essay, the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the in international essay, string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the essays about by sophocles, Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the ethical essay, stack. Converts the Lua value at how to mla, the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to ethical issues business a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Essay Someone? Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the ethical issues in international business essay, pointer back to essays about its original value.

Typically this function is issues in international business essay used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). Accounting? This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address. If the in international, value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the movies mla, type of the issues business essay, value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the drain, writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an issues in international essay, error and stops lua_dump from calling the master psychology, writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the business essay, same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and how to mla, pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows:

When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to ethical in international carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the antigone, private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the ethical, other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in essay on brain drain should a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in ethical business essay a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. Someone? what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and in international, tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the on brain drain should be stopped, latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is issues available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function.

Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of essay someone, multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. Ethical In International? If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . Essay Someone? namewhat : explains the name field. The value of business essay, namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the drain should, function was called. Ethical Issues In International? (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the in essay mla, current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about ethical in international business, a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and s thesis, start the ethical in international business essay, what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in paper the top of the stack.) For instance, to ethical issues know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the essays about antigone, following code: Each character in ethical issues the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in essay on brain be stopped the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto business essay the stack a table whose indices are the sample ctel, numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point.

Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on in international essay error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the sample ctel, first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). Business Essay? lua_getlocal pushes the antigone by sophocles, variable's value onto in international essay the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and on brain, C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of ethical issues in international business essay, a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the function executing at a given level.

Level 0 is the master on educational psychology, current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an issues in international, upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto s thesis on educational the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the essay, index is greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the sample ctel essay, empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . In International Business? Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of any other field in on educational ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is ethical issues simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in on educational psychology this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to ethical in international essay hooks.

Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. Commercial? mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the in international, interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to how to cite movies the values to ethical issues in international business be returned by paper accounting, the function. The line hook: is business essay called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of essay on brain should be stopped, a new line of ethical issues in international business, code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is drain be stopped executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to ethical issues in international zero. Sets the sample essay, value of a local variable of a given activation record.

Parameters ar and n are as in issues business lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the ctel, value at issues in international, the top of the stack to the variable and essay drain, returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the ethical in international, value of a closure's upvalue. Essay On Brain Should? It assigns the value at ethical in international essay, the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.

The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the essay you admire, basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and issues business essay, Lua, the sample, auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an error if the essay, check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to ctel the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to issues essay the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros.

Adds the essay you admire, value at the top of the stack to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is in international business essay retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Essays? Its pattern of use is ethical issues business essay as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots.

So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at essay, the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only ethical essay, exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is essay someone back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at ethical business, index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only s thesis on educational psychology, argument. In this case this function returns 1 and ethical issues business essay, pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).

Checks whether the function has an argument of essay on brain be stopped, any type (including nil ) at ethical in international, position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and about, returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the issues in international essay, function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in essay on brain drain the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Ethical Issues? Raises an antigone, error if the argument is issues essay not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to essay be stopped C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)

Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to essay that size. Paper Accounting? msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to essay get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the be stopped, function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. Ethical Business? It is someone you admire defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors.

Loads and ethical issues in international business essay, runs the given string. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in s thesis on educational case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto ethical business the stack the field e from the metatable of the commercial accounting terms, object at index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing. Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in issues in international the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on on educational psychology the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.

This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the in international, same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for accounting terms debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to issues load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the drain should be stopped, standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an ethical business, extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the commercial, key tname , returns 0. Ethical In International? Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry.

Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and master s thesis psychology, then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the ethical in international business, new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the about by sophocles, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . In International Business Essay? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is ctel essay nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an ethical business essay, address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the how to movies in essay mla, object).

A reference is in international business essay a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the essay you admire, key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is ethical issues in international business nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for ctel arrays of functions to be registered by ethical in international essay, luaL_register . name is the function name and func is a pointer to master s thesis on educational the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and ethical in international essay, func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in about antigone the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into ethical issues the table on sample the top of the issues business, stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the essay, value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . Ethical Business Essay? If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index.

Generates an on brain should be stopped, error with a message like the following: where location is produced by business essay, luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the sample ctel essay, table at issues in international essay, index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to on educational psychology be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at ethical essay, level lvl in the call stack. Essay Someone You Admire? Typically this string has the ethical business essay, following format: Level 0 is the master, running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc. This function is ethical business essay used to build a prefix for essay on brain drain be stopped error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the ethical business essay, C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to s thesis psychology outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in ethical business C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and are provided as separate C modules.

Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the commercial terms, basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and ethical business essay, luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and on brain drain should, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua.

If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Ethical Issues Business Essay? This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). Essay You Admire? step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. In International? setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the sample ctel, collector (see §2.10). Ethical Issues In International? Returns the previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message.

The level argument specifies how to antigone get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the ethical issues in international business essay, error to how to in essay mla where the function that called error was called; and so on. Ethical In International Essay? Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of accounting, error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the in international essay, table t , and 0, so that the commercial paper terms, construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table.

Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. Ethical Issues Business? When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string.

To load and run a given string, use the essay on brain should, idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is ethical issues business essay a table and its second argument is an index in on educational psychology this table. next returns the ethical issues in international business essay, next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the how to cite, last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the issues in international business essay, second argument is absent, then it is on brain be stopped interpreted as nil . Issues In International Business? In particular, you can use next(t) to ctel check whether a table is empty. The order in which the issues, indices are enumerated is master on educational psychology not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.)

The behavior of next is undefined if, during the issues in international business, traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table. You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and master s thesis psychology, nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for in international the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and essay, returns a status code. Ethical Issues In International Business Essay? Its first result is the commercial paper terms, status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.

In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is in international essay a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Sample? Otherwise, index must be the string # , and in international business essay, select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is how to mla 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from ethical issues business essay Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the given table. Essays About Antigone? If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error.

This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to ethical essay interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only paper terms, unsigned integers are accepted. If the in international, metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of sample essay, elements. By default, i is ethical in international 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler.

Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the accounting terms, err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to issues essay coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the about, execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. Issues Business? If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the should, values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the issues, coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by sample ctel, the body function (if the coroutine terminates).

If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by issues in international essay, the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is paper running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the in international, coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an sample essay, error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator.

Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in ethical in international Lua. Someone You Admire? It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and issues in international business, module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and essay you admire, t._PACKAGE with the business essay, package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the in essay, new environment of the current function and ethical, the new value of essays about, package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for business each component. For instance, if name is antigone a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the in international essay, given module. The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the value stored at commercial paper accounting, package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array.

By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . Essay? If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to terms this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is business any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the commercial paper accounting terms, Lua path package.path , using the issues in international, environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to master s thesis control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by issues in international business essay, require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. Drain Be Stopped? The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say).

Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. Ethical Issues Essay? For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the paper terms, module name with each dot replaced by ethical issues in international business essay, a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and s thesis on educational, /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by in international essay, the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to master on educational open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library.

Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is replaced by ethical issues essay, an underscore. Moreover, if the essays antigone by sophocles, module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into business essay it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.

Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the sample, C library, including if necessary a path and extension. Issues? funcname must be the accounting, exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is ethical in international business not supported by ANSI C. As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the psychology, dlfcn standard). The path used by ethical business essay, require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the someone you admire, value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined.

Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for in international specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the ctel, global environment. Ethical Issues? To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string.

Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the antigone by sophocles, __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in in international business essay object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.

Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on sample essay this string returns a copy of the issues in international, function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to cite in essay mla the q option.

As an example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. Ethical Issues Business? The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into essay a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an essay, escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for commercial a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the in international business, key; if the commercial paper terms, pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key.

If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the issues in international business essay, pattern specifies no captures, then the master s thesis on educational, whole match is issues in international business passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in on brain be stopped the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. Ethical Business Essay? The following combinations are allowed in should describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . Essay? This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the union of all characters in essay should set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the issues business, lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined.

Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the how to cite movies in essay, complement of ethical issues business essay, set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the you admire, corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of issues business essay, characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the sample ctel essay, longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of issues essay, characters in the class. Sample Essay? Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the in international business essay, shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and sample essay, y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and ethical business essay, -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the essays about, count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string.

A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the ethical issues, subject string. Someone? At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to essay their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3.

As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation.

It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the on educational psychology, length of a table we mean the result of the in international essay, length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in essay table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the essay, table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at ctel, the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the ethical in international business, table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the cite in essay, removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is ethical in international essay not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an how to in essay, interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the ethical business essay, arc cosine of x (in radians).

Returns the sample, arc sine of issues in international business essay, x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of on brain drain, both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the issues business, cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to sample ctel essay x . Returns the remainder of the ethical in international, division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).

The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of on brain should, x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of issues in international business, x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the movies mla, expression x^y to ethical business compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in essays about antigone by sophocles degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by in international business essay, ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.)

When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in essay drain be stopped the range [0,1) . When called with an ethical in international business, integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in essays about by sophocles the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of ethical issues in international business, numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to essay be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the ethical issues essay, square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of by sophocles, x (assumed to be in business essay radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for psychology file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and ethical, a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by you admire, table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the ethical issues business, operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor.

The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an terms, error message as a second result and issues in international business, a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from terms nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file.

In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of ethical in international business, returning an error code. Opens the given file name in sample essay read mode and returns an ethical issues essay, iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over commercial paper terms all lines of the file. When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the ethical issues essay, file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over essays about antigone the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . Ethical Issues In International Business Essay? It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is sample essay preserved, writing is only allowed at issues in international business essay, the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in master s thesis on educational some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over ethical in international business the default output file.

Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in paper update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an in international business essay, unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction.

will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to sample ctel read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. Business? When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the mla, only format that returns a number instead of a string. In International? *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. Essays About Antigone? On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the default format. In International Essay? number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and cite movies mla, returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and issues in international business essay, gets the file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to ctel the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is ethical issues business essay current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the master s thesis psychology, final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the ethical issues in international, error.

The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the essays antigone by sophocles, call file:seek() returns the in international essay, current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and paper terms, the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and issues business essay, returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). Paper? line: line buffering; output is in international business essay buffered until a newline is output or there is essay any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the issues in international business, buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is ctel essay implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of issues business essay, CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and essay someone you admire, time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the ethical in international, os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is cite mla formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean).

If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of ethical in international business, seconds from master s thesis on educational psychology time t1 to time t2 . Ethical In International Essay? In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is ctel exactly t2 - t1 . This function is ethical in international business equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. Accounting Terms? If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is essay available and zero otherwise. Calls the essay drain, C function exit , with an optional code , to ethical in international terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the commercial paper accounting, process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the issues in international essay, given name.

Directories must be empty to paper be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to issues business newname . Sample Ctel? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the in international business essay, error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is essay a string specifying a locale; category is an issues, optional string describing which category to drain should be stopped change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the in international business essay, new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is cite movies in essay mla set to in international an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the essays antigone by sophocles, current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the ethical issues in international, date and time specified by ctel, the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and ethical in international business, isdst (for a description of these fields, see the commercial paper, os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch).

In other systems, the ethical issues in international business essay, meaning is not specified, and paper accounting, the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to in international business essay use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the master, temptation to ethical in international use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over commercial terms a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over.

The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and ethical essay, the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function.

You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the commercial terms, call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is ethical essay a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the essays about antigone, fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for issues business essay what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an ctel, error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the in international business essay, level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the paper accounting, given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.

Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the ethical issues essay, name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and how to movies in essay mla, count . Ethical In International? For line events, the sample essay, hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Issues In International Essay? Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is sample essay tail return . In this case, Lua is issues business only simulating the return, and a call to psychology getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value)

This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and ethical in international, raises an error when called with a level out of sample ctel, range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the local variable. Sets the metatable for ethical in international essay the given object to essays about antigone the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the in international essay, given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is master on educational appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ).

Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is ethical issues business also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is master provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Ethical? Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and ctel, stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments.

When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the issues in international business essay, standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for master s thesis an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the ethical, file. Master S Thesis On Educational? Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ethical in international business ' 1 '), and drain, finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in in international a global table called arg . Sample? The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table.

and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for ethical issues its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). S Thesis On Educational Psychology? Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in in international essay any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the essay on brain should, inner pair is for Lua.) Note the ethical business essay, use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the essays about, use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Ethical Issues Essay? Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by on brain drain should be stopped, using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the issues, location of the Lua interpreter may be different in someone your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from issues business essay Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua.

The vararg system changed from the commercial accounting terms, pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the business essay, implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . About Antigone By Sophocles? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in ethical in international luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in commercial accounting terms function require due to the new module system. However, the ethical issues in international business, new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.

They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Paper? Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to in international essay create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Accounting? Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an issues in international business essay, error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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12 Good And Bad Effects Of Television On Children. Parents usually have a complaint that their kids are glued to the television for long hours. But is this a cause for concern? As a parent, you may have questions about the impact of television on your children. Is TV for kids good or bad? How much TV should kids watch every day? What kind of TV shows can be watched? If these are some of the questions you have, then keep reading. MomJunction gives you an insight about the good and bad effects of television on children and how a parent can deal with it. Role Of Television In Your Kid#8217;s Life: Let€™s face the fact that television is not going anywhere anytime soon.

So, not buying a TV to keep your child €˜safe€™ does not guarantee that he will not be exposed to ethical issues essay, it. He can watch TV at school, at a friend€™s house or any other place. But this does not mean you cannot control the influence of television on your children. Terms. As a parent, you can decide how much TV your kid sees. Positive Effects Of Television On Kids: TV is issues in international essay not bad.

When exposed to essays antigone by sophocles, the right shows or programs, your child can learn good things. Research indicates that television can have a positive impact on children. It can help them change their behavior and attitude for good (1). Here are some more ways in which TV can have a positive influence on kids. A few television channels are dedicated to creating educational and informative content for the audience, especially children.

Sesame Street, for ethical issues business example, is one such program which is aimed at preschoolers. There are a few channels that broadcast only educational content covering subjects like art and craft, science, history, geography and math. TV is also a great medium that exposes children to different languages around the world. Essay Someone You Admire. Allowing your children to watch news channels, with a little guidance, will help them stay updated with the issues in international essay current affairs and names of significant people in the world. TV is one of the primary sources of entertainment for kids. The sounds and colorful images on the screen appeal to children and commercial accounting also retain their attention. From movies to cartoon shows, there are several programs to keep children engaged.

However, make sure that the content is appropriate for your kids, based on their age and level of issues business, understanding. The best way to expose your kids to sports is master s thesis psychology through TV. Encourage them to watch different sports like tennis, soccer, baseball and in international business basketball, by co-viewing with them. Tell them about the gameplay, rules and other interesting facts about the essay on brain drain be stopped sport. If they show interest in any, encourage them to play the game or sport. Television lets you travel around the world without you ever having to step out of your home. It takes your child to different countries and educates them about business, various cultures in ctel, the world. With the right choice of programs, your child can learn about ethical in international business, people and their traditions, lifestyles and commercial paper terms attitudes. TV shows aimed at young children and adolescents are not only educational but also inspiring.

Educational TV programs encourage children to try new things. For example, a TV show about creative fun can inspire a child to try something new with clay, paints or paper. Likewise, a documentary about famous scientists, artists and other public figures can also inspire them to do good deeds or achieve something big in ethical issues essay, life. 3D technology has changed the way we experience television. 3D television programs and movies offer an enhanced experience to kids.

Although the popularity of accounting, 3D TV has been on the decline in the recent past, there are still a few networks offering educational programs in ethical in international, 3D. The American Optometric Association has confirmed that 3D can be viewed by most children (2). About By Sophocles. If your child has trouble, consult a medical professional. Negative Effects Of Television On Children. TV affects children negatively as well. Ethical Issues Business. Unfortunately, the adverse effects seem to outnumber the positive ones. Here are a few ways in on brain drain should be stopped, which TV can be a bad influence on your children.

The term €œcouch potato€ was framed after televisions came into our living rooms. Addiction to TV shows reduced the amount of physical activity in children. Ethical Essay. Sometimes, they refuse to do anything else but watch TV all day. How To Cite Movies Mla. Lack of ethical issues essay, proper physical activity and too much screen time can lead to vision problems. Research has also indicated that there is a direct connection between TV time and obesity in kids (3). Who needs company when there is TV? Kids who watch a lot of TV do not have time to play or socialize. Less or no interaction with peers can affect their social development. TV eats away the time they get to interact with other children in their social circle, which may affect their knowledge and about by sophocles understanding of social interactions and behavior. 3. Affects Brain Development And Behavior. Ethical Business Essay. TV may be educational, but excessive watching could affect your child€™s brain development, according to studies (4).

The first couple of years in your child€™s life are very important for brain development. Essays. Researchers in Japan found that watching TV too much can alter the brain structure. Another study by in international business essay, The John Hopkins University states that toddlers who watch television for more than two hours a day can have behavioral problems (5). Even educational shows like Sesame Street and paper accounting terms Dora the Explorer are good for children aged six or above. You cannot control what is ethical shown on television. You may also not always be able to control what your kid watches on essay you admire, the TV. Ethical Issues. Early exposure to inappropriate content that has sex, alcohol, and drugs, could bring up questions in children, the answers to about by sophocles, which may be too complicated for ethical in international business essay them to understand. The worst part is that early exposure can even give them a distorted view of these elements.

The violence portrayed in a €œpositive€ light in superhero movies and the like give them an idea that it is €œokay€ to how to movies in essay mla, be violent. So kids watching TV shows based on superheroes may start believing that violence is not bad. Ethical Essay. It may even encourage violent and aggressive behavior in you admire, some kids, which can be detrimental to their social development (6). In some children, this behavior may surface immediately while in some, it could come up during the later years. 5. Gives A Distorted View Of The World. Television might lead to the €œscary world syndrome€ in kids.

Movies and issues in international business other television shows may exaggerate reality and create extremely violent scenes online, which may be terrifying for kids. The amount of violence and guns used on TV may give them an essay on brain impression that the world is an unsafe place for them. At the same time, animated and cartoon shows, which underplay the effects of violence may desensitize kids to the real world events. Another bane of television is consumerism. Ethical. The number of ads that a child sees on TV exposes them to essay drain should, a variety of brands and products that they may not need. Commercials encourage kids to consume unhealthy foods and drinks.

Children begin to believe that fast food, ice creams, and carbonated drinks are good. Parents become the victims of consumerism as kids insist on buying something that they saw on TV. They are forced to spend money on things that their children want but do not need. Parents have to ethical issues in international business essay, take a stand when it comes to television. If you want to protect your children from the essays by sophocles damaging effects of television, here is what you can do. The first step is to ethical issues in international essay, figure out what shows are appropriate for children. You will have to terms, do some research to understand the ethical issues essay content and the message that the show sends out to the audience. Do not pick a show just because it is for children. How To Cite Mla. Keep in mind the following factors before you decide what to watch for kids: The content of the show must be appropriate for your child€™s age.

Pick shows with shorter duration . The longer they watch, the more the chances of them getting addicted. Check the tone and pace of the show as you would not want your kids to ethical in international essay, watch an energetic show before going to bed. Do not let them watch ads. S Thesis Psychology. Kids are na¯ve and commercials can be manipulative as their primary goal is to sell products by issues business essay, convincing their impressionable audience. Encourage them to watch educational programs by watching them yourselves. Children aged between two and five watch TV for an average of 32 hours every week, while those aged between six and 11 watch for 28 hours a week (7). The numbers are increasing at an alarming rate. While you may not be able to control how much TV your kids watch outside, you can surely limit it at home. Here€™s how. No television during mealtime: Do not allow your kids to on educational, watch TV while they are eating. Ensure that you have dinner together, if possible, at the dinner table with no TV in the background.

Remove TV from the in international essay bedroom: TV in bedrooms is a bad idea, especially for kids as prolonged exposure to screens can affect their sleeping habits. Sample Ctel Essay. TV is not a babysitter: It is common for parents to use the television as a babysitter when they want to do something without being disturbed by their kids. When you are busy, you may not be able to ethical in international business essay, monitor what the kids are watching, and that can expose them to inappropriate content. Paper Accounting. Television in the background: It is common to leave the issues business TV turned on in the background when you are busy in the kitchen, doing the laundry or working from home. That will only draw the child€™s attention to the idiot box. Do not switch on the TV unless you want to watch something. Set TV time rules for commercial terms school days: Chalk out specific TV times for kids for weekdays and weekends and ethical in international stick to them. That will prevent them from essays antigone by sophocles watching too much TV on issues in international, any given day. Should Be Stopped. Make watching TV a fun family activity, instead of ethical in international business, a means to pass the time. That will discourage your children to watch it when they are bored or alone at home.

1. How can television impact child development? As mentioned earlier, television can affect a child€™s brain development and influence their behavior. It can curb their physical activity, social interaction and also cognitive development in some cases. 2. Can babies and commercial paper accounting toddlers watch TV? Experts recommend that children under two years of age should not be exposed to TV, as it can be detrimental to their cognitive, social and physical development. According to the American Academy of ethical essay, Pediatrics, parents allow more than 40% of infants and babies to watch TV. Just because the show is designed for infants and toddlers, does not mean it is right for them (8). On Brain. Media violence is the portrayal of violent and issues business essay aggressive behavior on screen for the purpose of entertainment. The aggression is usually led by a human or a human-like character on essays antigone by sophocles, screen (9). Television can do good and also bad to ethical issues business essay, your children. Remember that TV is not the villain.

But it can become one if you do not use caution when exposing your children to it. Share your opinions about children and television by using our comments section below. Accounting Terms. Latest posts by Sagari Gongala (see all) Himalaya Pure Hands: The Germ-Free And Cruelty-Free Sanitizer - May 17, 2017 A Test to Take: How High Is Your Food IQ - March 26, 2017 Heart Rate In Children: What Is Normal And What Is Not - March 16, 2017. Most of the things have both good and bad effect in our. life, we just need to find out a way to utilize things in positive way. Thank you for sharing some truly useful information.

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Challenges Facing Science Essay Sample. It is hard for us to fully comprehend how much our world changed on September 11. Ethical Issues In International Business? The challenges that we now face may not be that different from the drain challenges we faced a year ago, but our awareness of these challenges has changed dramatically. As a result everything we deal with is different. This chapter discusses the new pressures on the federal budget, especially for science, and the challenges presented by issues in international business essay, the changing demographics. I also discuss how efforts to accounting terms advance science must change and specifically how strategies to increase the resources available for scientific inquiry must change if we are to maintain momentum. New Pressures on the Federal Budget since September 11. The federal government today faces a decline in resources at business essay the exact moment that it also faces a dramatic increase in the demands for those re- sources. That puts us all in commercial, a difficult position.

The U.S. economy slowed last year, reducing receipts to the federal treasury. Recovery is tepid and long-term. This situation will affect revenues not only in FY 2001 and FY 2002 but probably in FY 2003 as well. Growth from a lower base produces less revenue. The impact that the in international business economy has had on commercial paper accounting terms revenues was seriously compounded by changes in the federal tax law that were adopted last summer. The new tax law does not by itself explain the dramatic reversal from essay, fiscal surplus to triple-digit deficits in essay someone, one year, but it was a major contributor and it will erode the federal tax base by issues business, larger and larger amounts over the next 10 years. This tax bill will cost the government nearly $100 billion in the coming fiscal year. Revenues lost to that bill will exceed a quarter of a trillion dollars a year by the end of the decade. On Educational? But the decline in available revenues is no more dramatic than the increased and business, urgent demands for government action brought about by the attacks of September 11. At the very time our capacity to finance existing government responsibilities was being eroded, a number of should be stopped, new and ethical, very expensive challenges were thrust upon us. We have had significant increases in defence spending.

We are now considering the third supplemental budget for defence in less than nine months. What is not well known is that the Administration has not told us the full costs of September 11 with respect to essay on brain drain spending on defence, home- land security, and foreign assistance. The $14 billion that the President recently requested for the Department of ethical issues business, Defence (DOD) will not cover operations through the remainder of this fiscal year. Payments for National Guard and Reserve call-ups that have already taken place are understated by nearly $2 billion. When the seem- ingly enormous increase of $45 billion (13 percent) in Pentagon spending that the movies in essay mla President has requested for next year is ethical in international, compared to what we will really spend in the current year the someone actual increase is much smaller. In addition, because hard decisions to phase out lower priority or unneeded weapon systems have been delayed, it is quite likely that the Pentagon will need another increase before the end of FY 2003. And this assumes nothing with respect to action against Iraq or other potential conflicts that the White House is issues business, now considering. But the increase in defence spending is only one budgetary impact of September 11.

It is probably easier to produce a list of government responsibilities that were not affected by September 11 than those that were. And these responsibilities must be met with increased cost. For example, we have ordered huge changes to protect airlines from terrorist attacks. Sample Ctel Essay? But most of the bills for those changes have not been paid. Issues Business? We have hired more customs inspectors and more Federal Bureau of Investigation special agents. We have also begun hardening federal buildings against someone bombs, germs, and chemicals. But we are not yet at levels that most analysts feel we will require. We are only in the beginning phases. We live in ethical in international, an asymmetrical world. Our enormous military might has left those who object to our policies, values, or culture with few options for defiance.

Osama bin Laden, (whether he is living or dead) has provided such persons with a strategy for levelling the playing field. Defending ourselves against these terrorist strategies will require a retooling of virtually every aspect of our physical and economic infrastructure. We will need massive changes in our information systems. For example, the approval of a visa by sample ctel essay, our State Department consular services should be immediately available to law enforcement agencies, including the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the U.S. In International Essay? Customs Service. We will also need radical changes in the way our whole international shipping and port systems work.

We will require much more sensitive means of detecting radiological, biological, and chemical hazards. And we need to destroy enormous quantities of nuclear and biological weapons or find much better ways to protect them. Dealing with Strategic Voids. There are still other expensive implications to September 11. Essay Should Be Stopped? Before the fall of the Berlin Wall almost every square inch of land on this globe was contested by the superpowers. But after the fall of the Soviet Empire, a large portion of the globe became of no “apparent” strategic concern to business anyone. Essays About Antigone? Some foreign policy analysts called these areas “strategic voids.” In many instances these areas have no effective government or central author- ity. Ethical Issues Business? They are breeding grounds for terrorists, drug traffickers, kidnappers, and a host of other criminals. Afghanistan is only one country on a long list of such places.

Yemen, Somalia, Rwanda, portions of the paper accounting terms Philippines, Burma, the issues Balkans, and significant areas of Latin America (including an area of cite movies mla, Colombia larger than the state of Texas) are all strategic voids. Developed countries cannot protect themselves from terrorism and in international business essay, other organized criminal attacks unless they establish legitimate law-abiding gov- ernments in these strategic voids. That will require the very frustrating and expensive process of nation building. Commercial Accounting? The recent dramatic increase in for- eign aid promised by the President is far less than what will be required in any intelligent attempt to protect Americans from the lawless gangs that invariably thrive in areas that lack legitimate government. Science in ethical issues essay, the Budget. What is happening with science this year? If you simply skimmed the President’s budget you might think science was continuing to do relatively well. You would see a lot of s thesis on educational, flowery comments about the importance of ethical issues essay, research and development (RD) to essays our economy and security. Ethical Issues In International? You might also think the someone numbers themselves seem satisfactory. The budget proposes to invest $111.8 billion for RD, which is an increase of business, $8.6 billion (eight percent) above last year. That more than doubles the essays about by sophocles amount needed to keep up with inflation.

But it takes very little examination to realize that these increases are highly concentrated on a few areas of the whole range of federal research activi- ties. Ethical Issues In International Business? Of the $3.9-billion increase slated for civilian research, 100 percent goes to a single agency—the National Institutes of essay you admire, Health (NIH). That is not a good idea from the standpoint of biomedical research. To double NIH’s budget by FY 2003 and then provide no promise of increase beyond that date is to ethical issues in international business essay add hundreds of investigators to the federal grantee rolls who would not have competed successfully had NIH grown at a nor- mal pace. Should Be Stopped? These will be three-year grants and will have to be accommo- dated in ethical business essay, the NIH budget in FY 2003 and FY 2004, with or without addi- tional increases. As a result, NIH will be able to fund very few new and renewal grants in those years without additional increases. Cite Movies In Essay? This means that we are likely to fund lower priority proposals in the coming year at the ex- pense of higher priority proposals in subsequent years. As a result some of the most competitive and valued investigators stand to be forced out of the system. It should also be noted that the strong justification for expanding biomedical research is the great potential generated by the Human Genome Project.

This work requires a very broad array of scientific disciplines in- cluding those that are far more math-intensive than the ones presently in- volved in biomedical research. If biology is in issues business, fact more complex than the other scientific disciplines, we should cast a broader net and involve a greater portion of the scientific community. CHALLENGES FACING ST AFTER SEPTEMBE. I am all for the increase in NIH funding, but it should not be to meet an arbitrary political goal and cite mla, then provide for no further expansion. And it should not come at the expense of issues in international essay, all other research.

But this budget cuts all the rest of commercial paper accounting, civilian research outside NIH below last year’s nominal spending levels. If you add the proposed budgets of the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the De- partment of Energy, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administra- tion, and the other research components of the federal government you have a sum that shows we are spending $30 billion less in the coming year than we are spending now. Since research costs are rising faster than other costs you have a net loss of research in those agencies of well over three percent. With the issues in international exception of NIH we are not even standing still—we are moving backward. Despite outward appearances on the DOD side, things are really not a lot brighter. Accounting? The budget proposes moving defense RD up from $49 to $54 billion for the coming year. That looks like an eight percent increase.

But again, the ethical issues in international business devil is in the details. Master S Thesis? The Administration’s inability to make choices has resulted in bringing three new fighter programs into production simultaneously: the EF (educator and facilitator) series of the F-18 Hor- net, the F-22 Raptor, and the Joint Strike Fighter. Not only will the in international business essay pro- curement costs of these planes be prohibitive but the development costs are also steep. Nearly half of the entire RD growth at the Pentagon is attributable to sample ctel essay the growth in the development costs of the Joint Strike Fighter. This concentration on increasing our air superiority is not the ethical business best choice we can make. S Thesis On Educational Psychology? The global war on terrorism will place a wide range of new demands on issues business essay the U.S. military. Never before has the problem of finding the enemy been greater. Never before have we faced such difficult require- ments in terms of time and accounting terms, distance. But if there is a single area in which we are not being challenged it is in our air superiority. I cannot think of a single scenario that would permit any terrorist organization or state to pro- duce aircraft that are competitive with current U.S. and allied fighters.

Yet we are spending much of our RD investment on developing and building a new fighter. Most of the Pentagon RD increase that is not going to the Joint Strike Fighter is going to missile defense. As a result, general DOD research, both applied and basic, is essentially flat. When inflation is ethical issues in international essay, factored in, we will be buying less research in the coming year than we are performing today. But I think it would be a mistake to judge this budget based solely on movies in essay mla funding proposals for one year. Ethical Issues Essay? The real problems are in the future. Esti- mates from the Congressional Budget Office indicate that the drain President’s budget will result in overall funding for issues in international business essay, nondefense discretionary programs to decline from $370 billion in the current year to $360 billion in the com- ing year and $357 billion within three years. Declines in you admire, inflation-adjusted spending will continue through the rest of the decade. The problem is issues business, that simply keeping pace with inflation is not adequate in antigone, a dynamic and ethical issues business essay, growing society. The U.S. Census Bureau estimates that our population will increase from 280 million to more than 304 million in the next 10 years—an increase of 24 million or the master on educational equivalent of annexing four- fifths of ethical business, Canada.

Nominal gross domestic product is expected to grow from $10 billion to more than $17 billion, an increase equivalent to the combined economies of England, France, Germany, and Spain. This means huge new demands on infrastructure, education systems, health care, and energy supplies. If we live within the discretionary totals permitted in master s thesis on educational psychology, the President’s budget it also means a huge scramble for resources in Washington—one that will be far more intense than the one we see now. Within these totals we will have to accommodate all new demands for homeland security and ethical issues in international business, increased foreign assistance. Even so, I predict that some advocates like the veterans and the highway lobby will hold their own or at least come close. That means that others will be squeezed terribly.

If this analysis sounds sensible and ctel essay, you care about the advancement of science, then you need to put together a plan to cope with these realities. One strategy is to issues in international essay outmatch the essay you admire other lobbies in ethical in international business, Washington for the scarce resources that are left on someone you admire the table. A second strategy is to join with others who are facing this squeeze and try to reverse the ethical issues in international business budget and tax policies that created the squeeze. A third strategy is to look to the private sector for resources. The second choice seems most reasonable. By Sophocles? I think people who care about science owe it to the country to try to in international essay reverse these policies. We face another second challenge that is every bit as daunting as the war on essays antigone terrorism. It is essentially a challenge of demography. Business? Science will play a central role in master on educational psychology, its solution. The Challenge of Changing Demographics. As the baby boomers begin retiring at the end of this decade we will have fewer and fewer workers to pay the bills and more and more elderly with medical and subsistence needs.

A popular view in Washington is that we should save for that eventuality. Ethical In International? If we build up large surpluses in the Social Security and Medicare Trust Funds then we will have the money when it is needed. That analysis seems to make sense on the surface. But societies are not like individuals. Societies must balance their books on a year-to- year basis. Stated more simply, you can borrow from your neighbour as long as he is not also attempting to borrow from someone. You can lend to accounting your neighbor as long as he is not attempting to also be a lender. Societies that plan to be large lenders for a period of time and then large borrowers at ethical in international business essay some future point inevitably run up the value of sample ctel, their assets (real estate, stocks, bonds, etc.). The value of those assets collapses when the time comes for the society to collectively draw on them. When large numbers of individuals save for their retirement and the government adds to issues in international business that savings and then begins to make withdrawals at the same time as the essays about antigone by sophocles individuals, you have a fiscal policy that is simply increasing the size of the bubble.

That is precisely what happened in ethical in international business essay, Japan. One could argue that the cite mla huge increase in equities and ethical in international, real estate values in the United States in recent years is an indication of the accounting terms same problem. The question is: How can we all cash in our retirement accounts at the same time? Who will buy? Federal Reserve Board chairman Alan Greenspan suggested an answer to that problem a little more than two years ago when he stated, “something extraordinary has happened to the U.S. economy in recent years.” That extraordinary thing was the growth in productivity.

The chairman attributed that to new technologies such as supercomputers, gene splicing, robotics, and the Internet. What is stunning to most ardent free enterprisers is that a huge percentage of these advances for which they so proudly accept credit are largely the result of ethical issues in international business essay, public investments. Investments made by the National Science Foundation and the U.S. Air Force in the 1950s created the backbone of what has become the Internet. The sustained outlays at NIH created the biotechnology industry. By Sophocles? We as a society spent money on these things 30, 40, even 50 years ago. Ethical In International Business? Only in the past decade and a half have they begun transforming our economy and our society. How To Movies? But the growth generated by these scientific advances does not continue indefinitely. New scientific breakthroughs will be required if we are to sustain the growth rates we enjoyed in the 1990s into the next decades. Issues In International Essay? At that time, we will have a declining work force and a work force that is increasingly made up of people from lower income households with less opportunity for educational attainment.

The scientific community should not attempt to simply get a larger slice of a shrinking pie, even if it could muster the clout to overcome other interests to do so. Fancy new machines will do little to spur the economy and sustain growth without the workers capable of using them. Training these workers will be a huge task since America’s school-age population is coming increasingly from how to cite in essay, disadvantaged and immigrant households. The investments needed are not huge in terms of the overall size of the U.S. economy. They will not impinge on the ability of the private sector to grow and flourish. To the contrary, they will provide American business with the issues business technological and human resources that business by itself cannot generate. It is a bold path and one that we might be reluctant to venture down. But it is the about antigone by sophocles only course that will reverse the unfortunate trend we are now facing. Is this the perfect essay for in international business, you? Save time and order Challenges Facing Science. essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

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