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Open ended essay ap english

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bressay sound Shetland is a former county, now a council area, occupying an archipelago lying about open, 160 km (100 mi) northeast of the Scottish mainland. There are at least 100 islands, of which 16 are inhabited. Shetland was a Norse colony during medieval times, becoming part of Scotland in 1472. The islands are accessible by disadvantages of drinking alcohol air and by NorthLink ferries from Aberdeen. The Northern Lighthouse Board is responsible for building and maintaining the lighthouses in these northern islands. In recent years, the Board has replaced many smaller lighthouses with modern light towers, not all of which can be considered lighthouses. On the other hand, increasing ship traffic in the area has caused the Board to open ended essay construct a series of new towers in Yell Sound and along the western edge of the islands. In Shetland place names, a ness is a cape or headland, a voe is a narrow bay, a holm is a small rounded island, and the ending -ay (from the Norse ey ) means island. Muckle is Scottish for business communication, large.

ARLHS numbers are from the open ARLHS World List of communication research papers, Lights . Admiralty numbers are from Volume A of the Admiralty List of Lights Fog Signals . U.S. NGA numbers are from Publication 114. Northern Lighthouse Board - Lighthouse Library The Board's web site includes information and photos for many of the lighthouses. Majaky - Shetland Photos posted by Anna Jensikova. Online List of Lights - Scotland Photos by various photographers posted by Alexander Trabas. Lighthouses in Shetland Photos by various photographers available from Wikimedia; many of these photos were first posted on Geograph.org.uk. World of Lighthouses - Scotland Photos by open ended ap english various photographers available from medical school personal statement editing services Lightphotos.net. Leuchttürme in ended essay Großbrittanien Several pages on Shetland lighthouses are available on five chapters, the Pharologie.de web site. Britische Leuchttürme auf historischen Postkarten Historic postcard images posted by ended Klaus Huelse.

The Stevensons The history of Scotland's remarkable family of chapters thesis, lighthouse engineers. Bressay Light, Lerwick, August 2009. Flickr Creative Commons photo by cowrin. Southern Shetland Mainland Lighthouses. Open Ended Ap English? Sumburgh Head Light, Virkie, July 2010. Geograph Creative Commons photo by medical personal services Colin Smith. Western Shetland Lighthouses. Essay? Fugla Ness Light, Hamnavoe, May 2004.

Flickr Creative Commons photo by Iain R. Note: Northmavine is a wedge shaped peninsula at the northwestern corner of Shetland Mainland. The peninsula is connected to the rest of Shetland Mainland by an exceptionally narrow isthmus called Mavis Grind. Esha Ness Light, Stenness, October 2013. Need? Wikimedia Creative Commons photo by ended essay ap english Christiantomato. Note: Located northeast of Shetland Mainland, Yell is the second largest of the Shetland Islands. The island has a population of a little less than 1000 and is readily accessible by auto ferries from Toft on Shetland Mainland. Ness of to write, Sound Light, Ulsta, June 2006. Open? photo copyright Anna Jensikova; used by permission. Muckle Flugga Light, Unst, June 2010. Flickr Creative Commons photo by Roine Johansson. Firth and Lunna Area Lighthouses.

Firths Voe Light, Firth, 2006. Unattributed Shetlopedia.com Creative Commons photo. Out Skerries Lighthouse. Chapters? Whalsay Lighthouses Note: Whalsay (Whale Island) is an island off the open ended essay east coast of Shetland Mainland. The island has a permanent population of about 1000, mostly living in writing for grad the fishing port of Symbister. The island is accessible by passenger ferries from Laxo on Shetland Mainland. * [Symbister Ness (2)] Date unknown (station established 1904). Active; focal plane 11 m (36 ft); two flashes every 12 s, white or green depending on essay ap english, direction. Five Chapters? 7 m (23 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower enclosed by white aluminum panels. Lighthouse Digest has a postcard view of the original lighthouse contributed by Michel Forand, and Google has a satellite view. Located at ended essay ap english the southwestern point of Whalsay, about 500 m (0.3 mi) west of the harbor of Symbister, the principal town of the island.

Island accessible by ferry from Laxo on Shetland Mainland. Site open, tower closed. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. Chapters? ARLHS SCO-235; Admiralty A3802; NGA 3412. * [Suther Ness (2)] Date unknown (station established 1904). Active; focal plane 8 m (26 ft); flash every 3 s, white, red, or green depending on direction.

7 m (23 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower enclosed by white aluminum panels. John Dally has a distant view, and Google has a satellite view. Located on a low cape sheltering the open essay north side of the harbor at Brough, on the north coast of Whalsay. Island accessible by ferry from Laxo on Shetland Mainland; lighthouse accessible by a short walk. To Write? Site open, tower closed. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. ARLHS SCO-233; Admiralty A3804; NGA 3416. Out Skerries Light, Bound Skerry, June 2006. photo copyright Anna Jensikova; used by open ended ap english permission.

Eswick Area Lighthouses [Moul (Mull) of Eswick (2)] 1995 (station established 1904). Active; focal plane 50 m (164 ft); flash every 3 s, white, red, or green depending on essay, direction. 7 m (23 ft) square cylindrical skeletal tower enclosed by white aluminum panels. Robert Sandison has a distant view, and Google has a satellite view. The original lighthouse was destroyed when a large section of the cliff collapsed into the sea on 5 November 1994. The site is famous for ap english, its spectacular view of the eastern Shetlands. Note: a mull is a cape or promontory. Located on a bluff about 1.2 km (3/4 mi) east southeast of essay quality, Eswick and open ap english, 1.6 km (1 mi) north of Hoo Stack. Accessible by road and a short hike.

Site open, tower closed. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. Disadvantages Of Drinking Alcohol? Admiralty A3796; NGA 3408. [Hoo Stack] Date unknown. Active; focal plane 40 m (131 ft); four flashes every 12 s, white, red or green depending on direction. Trabas has a photo by Kees Aalbersberg, and Google has a satellite view. Located atop a small island off the east coast of Shetland Mainland, about 5 km (3 mi) southeast of Brettabister. Accessible only by boat.

Site status unknown. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. ARLHS SCO-102; Admiralty A3795.7; NGA 3407. Fair Isle Lighthouses Note: Fair Isle is an open essay ap english isolated island about research papers, 50 km (30 mi) south of Shetland Mainland. Essay? The island is accessible by business air from Lerwick on weekdays year round and also on Saturdays in the summer, or by ferry from Sumbergh three times a week in the summer and once a week in the winter. The permanent population is less than 100. Foula Lighthouse * Foula 1986. Active; focal plane 36 m (118 ft); three white flashes, separated by 2.7 s, every 15 s. Approx. 8 m (26 ft) round cylindrical metal tower with lantern and gallery; 4th order Fresnel lens. Ended Essay Ap English? Lighthouse painted white.

Charles Tait also has a good photo; the disadvantages of drinking large fuel cylinder standing behind the light tower in Tait's photo was removed when the light was solarized in 2000. Google has a satellite view. Foula (from the ended essay ap english Norse fuglaey , bird island) is an essay isolated island about 40 km (25 mi) west of Shetland Mainland. The permanent population is only about 30, all members of the same family. The island is accessible by ferry, and open ap english, ecotours and self-catering accommodations are available. Located at communication research the south point of the island; accessible by hiking trail. Site open, tower closed. Operator: Northern Lighthouse Board. ARLHS SCO-085; Admiralty A3860; NGA 3562.

Fair Isle South Light, Fair Isle, May 2006. Flickr Creative Commons photo by Jeroen Minderman. Information available on lost lighthouses: Notable faux lighthouses: Posted September 22, 2004. Checked and revised December 28, 2016. Lighthouses: 15.

Site copyright 2016 Russ Rowlett and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

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Welcome To All Competitive Exams Portal. ”I haven’t failed. Open Ended Ap English. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.” India is a vast country, with people belonging to disadvantages of drinking alcohol essay different religions living amicably for centuries together. Ap English. The rich traditions of tolerance, perseverance, plurality and assimilation have kept the essay school, identity of the country intact, and essay civilization thriving. Declared a secular country in the constitution, India has several provisions for protection of minority communities.

The State does not discriminate on the basis of any particular religion. Do I Need To Write A Paper. There are constitutional provisions for ended essay ap english equality of opportunities for all. Despite precautionary, preventive and positive measures having been envisaged in what need to write the constitution, to open ended essay rule out medical statement any feeling of being left-out, communal disturbances keep recurring. Open Ended Essay Ap English. The Government had, often expressed its commitment toward maintaining communal harmony in the country, and has been taking steps- statutory, legal, administrative, economic, and so on. The Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh, while speaking at the Communal Harmony award ceremony, 2009 reiterated the need for papers communal harmony and national integration. Open Essay. He said “India has been home to all the great religions of the world. What Do I Need A Paper. While some were born here, others took root in open ended essay this ancient land of what need to write ours. The sub-continent has for ended ap english centuries provided a unique social and intellectual environment in communication papers which many distinct religions have not only co-existed peacefully but have also enriched each other. It is the sacred duty of essay ap english each one of what do i need a paper us to carry forward this great tradition. I believe that both the essay ap english, government and civil society groups must continuously watch and what do i to write a paper raise our voice against ended essay, groups and individuals who use violence in the name of religion.

No religion sanctions violence. Editing Services. No religion preaches hatred. Essay. No religion endorses animosity towards another human being. Those who use religious symbols and school editing services forums to open essay talk of alcohol essay violence, sectarianism and open ended essay discord cannot be said to for grad school be true spokesperson of their respective religion. However, we also know that all societies, including ours, have to open ended ap english contend with such preachers of disharmony and disagreement. That is alcohol, why it is all the more important to ended essay ap english recognize and need applaud those - like today's distinguished award winners - who work selflessly for communal harmony and national integration. Ap English. It is our obligation to medical school statement services nurture such voices of ended essay ap english sanity”. Gandhiji, the business research, father of the nation, commented “Communalism of the virulent type is a recent growth.

The lawlessness is a monster with many faces. It hurts all, in the end, including those who are primarily responsible for it”. The Government has taken initiatives to ended essay promote communal harmony. These include constitution of the to write, National Integration Council (NIC) (1960s), setting up of the National Foundation for ended essay ap english Communal Harmony (1992) and laying down of the essay, guidelines for ended the promotion of communal harmony from writing essay for grad, time to time. Open Ap English. The NIC, comprising of prominent members of various sections of papers society, besides several union ministers and chief ministers of essay states, has been meeting regularly, to discuss and sort out the need to write a paper, issues of discord. Open Ended Essay. Since the quality, decision makers at the Centre and open ap english the States are members of the what need to write, council, a patient hearing is given to the grievances of various sections of open essay society. The vision of the National Foundation for Communal Harmony (NFCH) is to medical have India free from open ended essay, communal and communication all other forms of violence, where all citizens especially children youth live together in peace harmony. Ended Ap English. For this, the Foundation promotes communal harmony, strengthens national integration and fosters the spirit of unity in diversity through collaborative social action, awareness programs, reaches out to school the victims of violence especially children, encouraging interfaith dialogue for India’s Shared Security, Peace Prosperity. It provides financial assistance to the child victims of societal violence for ended their care, education training, aimed at their effective rehabilitation. It promotes communal harmony and disadvantages of drinking essay national integration by organizing variety of activities either independently or in association with State Governments, NGOs other organizations.

It confers awards for outstanding contribution to ended promotion of of drinking alcohol essay communal harmony and essay ap english national integration. It undertakes activities to highlight and strengthen the to write a paper, bonds of open unity and writing an autobiographical essay for grad school affinity between different religious groups in the country, and encourages activities to open ended essay promote belief in medical statement services the principles of non-violence in resolving disputes. There is no denying the ended, fact that the maintenance of communal harmony, and the prevention/avoidance of communal disturbances/riots and, in papers the event of any such disturbances occurring, action to open essay ap english control the same and writing an autobiographical school measures to provide protection and relief to the affected persons, is a prime responsibility of the State Governments. The Central Government has issued guidelines for maintenance of communal harmony, which cover preventive and Administrative Measures, Personnel Policy, and relief and ended essay rehabilitation measures. They reiterate the fact that if due vigilance is maintained, careful planning done and what do i need to write preparatory measures put in place, many possible incidents of ended essay ap english communal violence can be pre-empted and prevented; and, wherever, despite this, communal violence does occur, it can be contained effectively, and much human suffering avoided, if it is to write a paper, tackled with promptness, grit and determination. Essay. Utmost care and attention requires to be given to the planning and implementation of thesis a range of measures to alleviate the sufferings of those affected by open essay ap english any incidents of business communication papers communal violence, including the provision of relief and rehabilitation assistance to open ended the victims of such violence. The guidelines underline the medical personal statement, fact that preventing a communal riot is open ended essay, far more important than containing it. It is the chapters thesis, duty of the District Administration to carefully assess the open ap english, communal situation in the District on of drinking alcohol essay, a regular basis and open ended essay prepare a profile of the District, identifying the areas which are prone to communal sensitivities and thesis tensions. Open Essay. The police officers should keep a close watch on the situation in such areas, periodically visit them for five thesis promoting public contact and interface with the civilian population and open ended essay ap english community leaders. Manpower requirements for these areas should be realistically assessed, and all vacancies filled up and manned.

In the what do i need to write, sensitive/hyper-sensitive areas, detailed Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs), and contingency plans to deal with escalated situation/riots, etc., should be kept ready. The unregulated use of loudspeakers, which is ended essay, often a cause for arousing passions and evoking violent reactions among different groups of people, need to business be checked. Various kinds of religious processions, which very frequently lead to communal confrontation and ended clashes as often various organisations tend to research organise, and view, processions on religious occasions as a show of open essay strength, which could itself become a cause for provocation, should be checked. Need A Paper. There should be involvement of identified respectable members of the essay, community, in the peaceful conduct of processions. The use of business technology, like Video/Audio coverages of events and processions could also act as deterrent. Open Essay. Effective and meaningful action needs to be taken to five thesis curb and open ended ap english check rumours, and proper assignment of writing an autobiographical for grad nodal responsibility and open modalities for what do i need a paper information management needs to ended ap english be ensured. Adequate steps need to research papers be taken to ensure that no damage is caused to ap english places of worship, The guidelines stipulate that composition of the police force, especially those deployed in communally sensitive areas, should be representative of the social structure of the region so as to ensure its credibility, and help in creating a feeling of papers confidence among all sections of the people. Open Ap English. In communally sensitive and riot prone areas police and administrative officials of proven integrity, efficiency, impartiality and disadvantages alcohol essay non-partisan outlook should be posted.

Every public servant should exercise the open ended essay, lawful authority vested in five chapters him/her to prevent commission of any communal violence, protect or provide protection to any victim of open ap english communal violence in do i need to write a strictly neutral manner, and any malafide act or omission should be severely dealt with. Due recognition should be given to ap english the services rendered by the district administration in preventing and dealing with communal disturbances. In a communally-sensitive area, small shopkeepers, entrepreneurs and daily-wagers are most prone to loss and damage to papers life and property, if the open ended, situation goes out of control, leading to arson or violence. They are most likely to face economic burden, due to loss of income or property, most of to write which is open essay ap english, not covered under any type of insurance. To Write A Paper. They can thus be the open ended, most willing partners in maintaining peace and communal harmony in the area. Similarly, women who are the worst sufferers in business research papers such situations may also be keen to ensure communal harmony. Ap English. The district administration can tap the five thesis, resources and open ended essay ap english energy of disadvantages alcohol these people/groups in ensuring peace.

Many voluntary organisations in essay the country are working in what need to write the field of open ap english promoting peace, national integration and communal harmony. Medical Editing. Such Organisations usually have motivated and open essay well-intentioned volunteers and workers. The district administration should mobilize support of, and of drinking encourage, such organisations, in their efforts to maintain communal harmony, and diffusing tension if a communal situation arises Whenever any communal incidents are apprehended or occur, prompt and immediate preventive/enforcement action may be taken, including, imposition of ended essay prohibitory orders/ curfew, and strict and communication papers neutral enforcement of the ended essay ap english, same, apprehension /arrest of the potential miscreants/ those indulging in school personal statement services violence, arson, etc., registration/institution of open ended ap english cases. Quality Management. Prosecution of all offences relating to open ap english communal violence/ rioting should be carefully monitored and, wherever necessary, Special Investigation Teams (SIT) may be constituted for ensuring fair and impartial investigation. A lot of resentment is chapters thesis, generated on account of ended ap english non-payment of timely relief/ex-gratia to need to write a paper the riot victims. Interim relief may be provided immediately to the individuals for any loss or damage suffered due to essay ap english communal violence. While providing assistance and relief to research papers the victims of communal violence, it should be ensured that there is no discrimination on essay ap english, the ground of an autobiographical essay for grad school sex, caste, community, descent or religion. The district administration should ensure timely provision of essential supplies/services such as food, milk, medicines, water and electricity, etc., in areas affected by communal violence.

Wherever it becomes necessary to set up relief camps, proper arrangements for ended ap english security and other appropriate amenities should be made, including arrangements for medical examination/ assistance, etc. Wherever required, on account of of drinking alcohol damage to residential and open ended ap english commercial property, an appropriate mechanism may be established for five chapters speedy disposal of ap english insurance claim and assistance from for grad, financial institutions by essay ap english way of an autobiographical loans/ rescheduling of loans, etc. The Central Government has launched a Central Scheme for open ended essay ap english assistance to business communication victims of ended ap english terrorist and communal violence, whereunder there is provision for disadvantages of drinking alcohol one time payment of ap english Rs.3 lakh to the affected families in addition to any ex-gratia relief that may be provided. The Government has enacted “The Religious Institutions (Prevention of essay Misuse) Act, 1988”, with a view to ended ap english maintaining sanctity of writing essay for grad religious places and to open ended essay ap english prevent their misuse for business communication papers political, criminal, subversive or communal purposes. It casts responsibility on the manager to ended inform the police in the event of misuse of the of drinking alcohol essay, place of worship. The Act also prohibits storage of arms and ended essay ammunition inside any place of statement worship. The Places of open essay ap english Worship (Special Provisions) Act 1991, is the essay quality, law to prohibit conversion of any place of worship and to open ended essay provide for the maintenance of the religious character of any place of worship as it existed on the 15th day of August, 1947. Personal Services. According to open ended essay ap english it, no religious institution or manager thereof shall use or allow the use of writing an autobiographical school any premises belonging to ended essay the institution for the promotion or propagation of any political activity, or for five chapters thesis the harbouring of any person accused or convicted of an offence under any law for open the time being in force.

No arms or ammunition can be stored, nor can it erect or put up any construction or fortification, including basements, bunkers, towers or walls without a valid licence or permission. Such premises can’t be used for the carrying on of any unlawful or subversive act prohibited under any law, or for the doing of any act which promotes or attempts to promote disharmony or feelings of an autobiographical school enmity, hatred or ill-will between different religious, racial, language or regional groups or castes or communities. All the religions have the open ended essay ap english, fundamental teaching of love and the feeling of communication research brotherhood towards fellow beings. When such is the open ap english, basic tenet of five chapters thesis each religion, where is the scope of discord, hatred and open ended violence. It is amply clear that some people misconstrue or misinterpret the need to write, religious teachings for their selfish, egoistic and short-term gains, and essay ap english sometimes fan communal feelings. It is also commonly known that usually the communal disturbances sprout from school personal statement, small, trivial incidents but with vested interests, they take the ended ap english, shape of what do i need to write a giant. India is a developing country, and an emerging economy.

The vision of ap english our leaders to make India a developed nation and an economic powerhouse, can’t fructify unless the internal security of the medical editing, nation, particularly communal harmony, is intact. Ap English. Maintenance of Communal peace and writing an autobiographical for grad tranquillity occupies lot of essay Government attention and medical energy, and in ended essay ap english case peace prevails, an medical school statement editing services, ambience of trust will develop between various communities, leading the nation on the path of ended ap english development and what need to write a paper economic advancement. ???? ?? ????? ??? ??, ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???-??? ?? ???? ? ??? ???? ?????????, ???-??????? ?? ???-????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ???? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ??? ?? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ?????????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ??? ????? ? ???, ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ???-??? ???????????? ?????????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??????????? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???????, ??????, ?????????, ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ??????, 2009 ??? ???????????? ??. ?????? ???? ?? ????????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???????? ???, “???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??-???????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ??, ?????? ? ???? ???-??? ???? ??????????? ???-??? ?????? ??? ???, ????? ???????? ??-????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?????, ??????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?? ?????????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ??? ???, ?? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ????, ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ??:??????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???”? ??????????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??, “???????????? ??? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ??, ????? ?? ??? ???? ????: ?? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??, ???? ??? ??, ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ????????? ???? ????“ ????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ????????? ???? ????? (1960 ?? ??? ???) ?? ??????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? (1992) ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ???-??? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????????? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??????? ????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ???-??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???, ????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ???????????? ?????? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ???????????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???, ???? ??? ??????, ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??, ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ??????? ?? ???????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ??, ???? ??? ?? ???????, ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?????-?????? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????, ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??, ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ???????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???????, ???-?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??????????? ?????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ?? ?????????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ???????????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????-??????? ???? ??? ???, ?????? ?????? ?????? ????, ????????? ????, ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ??, ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???, ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ???????????? ????? ???? ??, ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???, ???? ??????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ????-????????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???, ?? ?????????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ?????????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?????, ???-??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ?? ???????? ??, ???? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ???-????????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ???? ????????? ??????????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??? ???????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????????????? ?? ??????? ??, ???? ????? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ???????????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???, ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ????-???? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????/ ????? ????? ?? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ? ??????? ?????????? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ???, ???? ??????? ???? ?? ????????????? ??? ???? ???? ??????????????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ????????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ?????????? ?? ????????, ?????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?????????? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?? ??, ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ??????????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ???? ????????????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ????????, ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ???????? ?? ???-??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ????????: ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ?????? ??, ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ??: ?? ?? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????/??????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ????? ????????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ?????????? ????? ?????, ?????????? ?????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????????: ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????, ?? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??????????/ ??????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??????????? ?????/???? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ????/??????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????, ????, ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?? ?????/?????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???, ?????, ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??, ???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ????/?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??, ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????? ????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????????, ???????, ??????????? ???? ??????????? ??????????? ?? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? (????? ????????) ???????-1991 ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???? ????????? ???? ?? ?? 15 ?????? 1947 ?? ??? ???????, ? ?? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ??, ?? ? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ??, ???? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??, ?? ???? ????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ??? ???????? ???? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????, ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ???? ????? ??????????? ?????? ?????? ??, ?? ???? ???????, ?????, ???? ?????? ???? ????????? ????, ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?? ???????, ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ???? ????????, ???? ??????????????? ?? ??? ?? ??? ??? ?????????? ???? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ?????????????? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??????????? ?????? ??? ? ???? ??????????? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?????????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???????

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Ap English Literature Essay Questions

Sufi-Salafi Institutional Competition and Conflict. in the Chechen Republic. The Russian North Caucasus is one of the most politically complex and turbulent areas in the world due to its plethora of ethnic, national, and ended ap english, religious groups, as well as its history of quality management violent conflict and repression. Since the open ended essay, Russian Empire annexed the Caucasus in the 19th century, the central government in Moscow has dealt with the region using a heavy-handed approach, often fanning the five chapters thesis, flames of identity-based resistance movements. Open Ended Ap English. This has particularly been the case in the modern-day Chechen Republic. Despite long-lasting political disputes extant in the Chechen Republic, Islam remains the “common denominator” of identity formation. However, throughout history, disagreements have emerged over which types of Islamic political institutions and resistance movements are appropriate or necessary in a given context. The reciprocal reaction from the Russian state, in its many forms, has been to subsidize and support the specific Islamic institutions that they consider congruous with their political goals in the North Caucasus and to crack down on opposing movements. Even under the supposedly atheistic Soviet Union, Islamic identity persisted in the Chechen Republic despite the state moratorium on the establishment of official, public Muslim institutions. Medical Services. Islamic traditions were still privately practiced by Muslim subjects of the Soviet state, but access to open ended essay ap english religious leaders and educational resources, as well as the ability to publicly organize, were heavily limited.

After the fall of the essay management, Soviet Union in 1991, the ap english, resulting power vacuum, coupled with an underlying desire to create new identities through religion and nationality, resulted in the development of competing religious institutions. Writing An Autobiographical Essay. The opening of the area to essay global influence brought in new ideas about Muslim identity and politics from abroad. Dormant local institutions began to reawaken, resulting in a multitude of competing religious-political actors with opposing goals and methodologies. This resulted in what the critical defining phenomenon in the politics of the North Caucasus: competition by open ended ap english religious institutions and movements for political resources, often leading to intra-Muslim conflict. For the past 25 years, the ideological conflict between Muslim institutions in the Chechen Republic has pitted “traditionalists” versus “conservatives.” These terms are not easily defined, but they can be a useful heuristic for examining the of drinking essay, field of competition between institutions. “Traditionalists” seek to ended essay ap english restore Islam in business papers Chechnya to what it resembled before the open essay, Russian conquest, usually through the practice of tasawwuf (Sufism), which combines Islamic practices and beliefs with systems of Chechen national laws, traditions, and superstitions. Chapters. They draw political influence from the open ended essay ap english, Sufi tariqa (brotherhood), once the what to write a paper, major Islamic authorities in the North Caucasus, and the history of Chechen Sufi leaders such as Kunta-Haji Kishiev (1830-1867).[1] While traditionalists were heavily aligned with nationalist revolutions during the early 1990s, in recent years they have faced stiff competition from “conservatives.” Conservatives (also referred to open ended ap english as Islamists) favor strict adherence to Islamic law, eschewing any practice, belief, or legal code that developed independently from the management, Q’uran and hadith .[2] One conservative iteration of essay ap english Islam popular in the Caucasus is medical services Salafi Islam, which draws its name from al-salaf al-Salih , the “righteous ancestors” who were the earliest followers of the open ended, Prophet Muhammad.[3] Salafi Islam stands in direct contrast to the syncretic approach of tasawwuf , which it derides for retaining legal principles and folk traditions outside of the scope of the sunnah, the standard canon of Islamic law derived from the Q’uran and hadith . In the North Caucasus and elsewhere in thesis the Muslim world, Sufi and essay, Salafi institutions have been in a constant, zero-sum competition for resources, religious legitimacy, and political capital.

This paper examines the motivations and methods of the competition between traditionalists and conservatives in the Chechen Republic after the fall of the Soviet Union. It addresses three interrelated questions: which religious institutions are competing, how they compete with one another, and why they compete. Using a political-institutionalist approach to of drinking essay religious competition and conflict, I argue that the position of these religious groups and movements in disputes is dictated by their level of access to the political and ideological resources of the state. In the Chechen Republic, the ruling regime draws a large portion of ended ap english its legitimacy by subsidizing and supporting Sufi traditionalists in an effort to prevent conservative movements from seizing power. The underlying cause of competition is the lack of separation between mosque and state. When the medical, secular Chechen state intervenes on behalf of a particular religious tradition, it exacerbates the ended, ideological divide between different groups and forces institutions to clamor for political resources, which fosters competition and conflict. “New institutionalism”, a strong preference for social science modeling wherein “[institutional] phenomena are best understood as the aggregate consequences of behavior comprehensible at the individual or group level,” has been the de rigueur approach for comparative political science during the past few decades, but only recently has it been applied to the study of quality management religions.[4] Part of this gap is due to the longstanding belief within the political science literature that religion is a secondary or irrelevant consideration to how politics operates. Part is due to the academic field of religion’s rejection of the study of institutions for open ended ap english, being monolithic and not taking into account various divergent individual beliefs in a society.[5] Obviously, institutional study cannot account for every variant of religious thought in a particular community, but it can still be a useful referent for understanding the important competing views within a group on quality, a macro-scale and is thus necessary to analyze instances of widespread religious conflict. Religious institutions in this case, places of ended ap english worship, educational centers, state-supported religious administrations, and public political mobilization of religious in-groups function as a “prism” to explain popular religious trends in a society and how they affect politics as a whole.[6] In Muslim societies, religious institutions often differ on disadvantages essay, the question of separation of mosque and state.

Inevitably, some institutions develop connections with secular ruling entities, which affects not only the kind of doctrine they practice but also which people adhere to those institutions. Open Ended Essay Ap English. At the same time, competing movements reject secular entities and oppose institutions with deep connections to the ruling regime. The competition between these groups has been a defining feature of politics in the Muslim world.[7] Many studies of political Islam focus on medical personal, the primordial split in Islamic legal thought and practice stemming from the divide between Sunni and Shi’a Islam. On a larger scale, this divide is important for open ended essay, assessing the trajectory of conflict between different Muslim societies. However, the dichotomy between “traditionalists” and “conservatives” has generated more tension and fundamental debates within individual Muslim societies. Studying this dynamic is school personal editing especially important for theoretical analyses of competition between different Muslim political entities in a particular society.[8] Elsewhere in the Muslim world, classifying institutions as conservative or traditionalist can often be methodologically impossible. Ended Essay. Unlike the Sunni-Shi’a divide, which can accurately be described as a binary, conservativism and traditionalism often exist within specific Islamic societies as a spectrum.[9] In areas within the Muslim world where Islamic legal thought and philosophy has developed independently from the disadvantages alcohol, influence and intervention of a non-Muslim ruling entity, ascertaining the difference between a “conservative” institution and a “traditionalist” one can be difficult; sometimes, single institutions fit both definitions or exist somewhere in the middle of the spectrum.[10] The North Caucasus is unique because the population was not fully converted to Islam until the late 18th century, when local beliefs based on pagan traditions were still dominant, and Muslim institutions were not well established due to isolation and separation by ended ap english mountain ranges.[11] Only about a century after the peoples of the North Caucasus had fully converted to Islam, the intervention of the alcohol, Russian Empire put an immediate halt to the development of independent Muslim institutions. As a result of a lack of education and decades of limited public expression of Islam under the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, the local population lacked a coherent understanding of Islamic politics as they existed elsewhere, as well as the necessary educational background to understand nuances between the different interpretations of Islam. Thus, unlike in other areas of the Muslim world, the relationship between contemporary traditionalists and conservatives in the North Caucasus can be understood as a binary.[12]

The current academic literature on the conflict between Sufi and Salafi Muslims in the Chechen Republic focuses heavily on public perceptions of Islam, society, and politics, but does not explain how those perceptions “trickle-up” to form large-scale political trends centered on religion. Two approaches are popular: ideological approaches, which argue that the rise of Salafism in ap english Chechnya is tied to the influx of disadvantages alcohol ideas from ap english, abroad due to the fall of the Soviet Union, and sociological approaches, which argue that the same trend is dictated largely by the public’s dissatisfaction with the five chapters thesis, Russian ruling regime.[13] These approaches are excellent on a theoretical level, but fail when applied to individual test cases like the ended essay, Chechen Republic. One major problem is that they only seem to explain the management, development of Salafi or other conservative institutions, and do not describe the reciprocal evolution of ap english Sufi institutions to compete with Salafism for religious legitimacy and political capital. They treat Sufism in the North Caucasus as frozen in amber, invalidated by the failure of the papers, nationalist revolutions and outcompeted entirely by Salafism. Ended Essay. In reality, the nature of competition between the essay quality management, two groups forces them to constantly evolve to meet the demands, beliefs, and ideas of the public they serve, as well as the open ap english, external political situation.

Ideological approaches are particularly suspect, as they legitimate the common perception within the disadvantages alcohol, Russian policymaking apparatus that conservative iterations of Islam are “alien” to the North Caucasus and essay, are simply the product of essay foreign powers meddling in the region.[14] This narrative conveniently ignores many of the developments that have occurred within the North Caucasus to make Salafism popular today; it emerged due to contingent local circumstances and cannot be explained by open ended ap english foreign influence alone. While it is true that foreign investment in Salafi organizations, movements, and institutions has dramatically increased since the an autobiographical for grad school, Chechen Wars in the 1990s, Sufi organizations have also received a large share of foreign investment (often from the ended ap english, same countries that Russia accuses of sponsoring Salafi extremism, such as Turkey and Saudi Arabia).[15] The situation in the Chechen Republic today, where foreign investment is the research papers, highest in the North Caucasus and the most powerful institutions are Sufi orders, not Salafi mosques and extremist groups, helps to dispel the idea that foreign influence is necessarily correlated with the rise of Salafi Islam. Thus, it may be true that foreign support is an objective of the Sufi-Salafi competition for resources; however, it is not the cause of open ended essay ap english it. The sociological approach simplifies the multiplicity of disputes in the North Caucasus to writing an autobiographical essay for grad school the single narrative that conservative forms of open ended essay Islam develop out of revolt against writing an autobiographical school the domination of Russian rule. Essay Ap English. Salafi Islam is seen as primarily a form of resistance on behalf of communication Muslims in the North Caucasus an attempt to reclaim their identity and ended ap english, wrest power back from the central government in Moscow. The sociological approach “cuts out the middleman”: over the past ten years, the Russian federal government has increasingly delegated responsibility for policy regarding religious authority and countering extremism to the republics of the North Caucasus.[16] In response to these changes, the modern Salafi movement in the North Caucasus has adapted to not only criticize the Russian federal government but also local political structures, non-governmental actors, and international actors. The problems that have created the foundations for Salafi Islam’s popularity in the North Caucasus are not merely related to Russian “domination”, but also to intra-community disputes over how to create a space for Muslim identity within the essay quality, framework of a largely non-Muslim state.[17] It is important to recognize that since 1991, both Sufi and Salafi organizations at various times have been involved in open ended resistance against the Russian state; the thesis, idea that Salafis hold the monopoly on anti-Moscow sentiment or violent resistance in the North Caucasus is incorrect.[18] Additionally, this approach fails to account for resistance within the Muslim communities. The targeting of Salafis by Sufis and vice versa are both phenomena that exist widely within the North Caucasus. Certainly, the ideological and sociological approaches capture some of the underlying issues behind Sufi-Salafi competition in the North Caucasus. The roles of external influence and dissatisfaction with the Russian regime should not be understated, but they only show a small portion of the larger picture.

To understand how both of these factors come into play, scholars of religion and politics must analyze how institutions adapt and reform to respond to factors such as external influence and anti-Russian sentiment among the population. At its core, conflict between Muslims of the North Caucasus is open essay ap english a political matter, not a sociological or ideological one. II. Islamic Institutional Competition and Conflict in the Chechen Republic. In assessing how institutional differences between Muslim organizations have resulted in competition in the Chechen Republic, a thorough understanding of the institutions in question, the methods of cooperation, and the role of the state vis-à-vis specific institutions is five thesis necessary. Open Ended. While the local political and cultural environments in the Chechen Republic both have an effect on intra-Muslim competition, the following section attempts to ascertain each aspect of the environment and analyze their effects separately. However, in both political and an autobiographical essay for grad, cultural realms, underlying characteristics and effects of institutional competition are still evident due to ended the imposition of the state in the religious sector. A. Religious Institutions. The Chechen Republic is the most ethnically and religiously homogenous republic in the North Caucasus: a 2010 census found that over 95% of the population identifies as “Chechen” and 98% as “Muslim.”[19] However, it is impossible to do i to write a paper understand Islamic institutions in the modern Chechen Republic without first understanding the open ended, system of ethnic hierarchies that organize the Chechen people. The Chechens, like other North Caucasus mountain peoples, divide themselves into sub-units based on five thesis, geographic location, land, and heritage; there are nine “grand alliances of clans” ( tukkhum ), in sum containing around a hundred individual clans ( teip ).[20] Prior to the development of a concrete Chechen national identity during the colonization period, the teip system was the primary form of social relationship and belonging.

The teip leadership made individual decisions about how its members practiced Islam, and a majority of teip in the pre-Soviet period were ascribed to one of two Sufi tariqa : the Naqshbandiyya or the Qadiriyya.[21] Due to the erosion of open religious institutions during the personal services, Soviet period, “the lines between teip and [Sufi] brotherhood have been blurredespecially as today the open ended essay, religious groups now maintain their structure mainly by means of kinship and heredity”.[22] In the modern Chechen Republic, the disadvantages alcohol essay, teip system still leaves its mark on how Sufi religious institutions are organized and on the internal political dynamics of the Republic. Open Ended Essay Ap English. However, its role as the central organizing feature of Chechen society was essentially erased by another critically important event in Chechen history: the deportation of the Chechen people to medical personal services Central Asia during Stalin’s rule, under the pretense that they had collaborated with the Nazis during World War II. This event, referred to in the Chechen language as the Aardakh , resulted in the deaths of open ended ap english thousands and permanently disrupted the traditional, geographic clan-based network of affiliations by displacing the Chechens and severing the ties to their homeland.[23] Although the Chechen people were eventually allowed to return to the North Caucasus in 1957 under Khrushchev, the clan system never made a full revival. Quality. In its place, the concept of being “Chechen” as a unifying national identity began to coalesce.

Central to this national identity were the open essay ap english, last vestiges of the clan system, which survived in the Chechen cultural milieu through its integration with the Sufi tariqa hierarchy. Under Soviet rule, Muslim subjects were expected to live out an unrealizable ideal: being a “Soviet in public” but a “Muslim in private”.[24] Unexpectedly, this policy ended up privileging certain Sufi orders in the North Caucasus (most notably, the Qadiri and Naqshbandi brotherhoods) whose belief systems were based mainly on ritual, private practice such as the performance of dhikr (ritual recitation and repetition of religious phrases) and not on thesis, large-scale political practice, legal thought, or identity-based movements. These ritual-centric tariqa were not yet political institutions during the Soviet period, but through their ability to cling to private elements of Islamic identity, they survived the leadership purges and ap english, became critical to post-Soviet conceptions of Islamic institutions in the North Caucasus.[25] In many ways, the tariqa represents the “prototypical political party, meaning political movements supporting different interests for the Chechens”.[26] The subdivisions within the tariqa nowadays heavily resemble the former layout of the teip system, and individual Sufi shaykhs and murids (religious authorities) command a large amount of political resources, including followers, economic capital, religious authority and legitimacy, and, at times, their own military sub-units. Following the collapse of the business communication research, Soviet Union, collective demands for Chechen independence resulted in the attempted establishment of an independent state known as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (CRI) under the leadership of President Dzhokhar Dudayev.[27] The early political aims of the CRI leadership appeared mainly to be secular-nationalist, despite much of its army being made up of open essay local warlords and religious leaders connected to Sufi brotherhoods.[28] To maintain control of the breakaway region, the what to write a paper, newly-formed Russian Federation initiated a large-scale military intervention into the Chechen Republic. The First Chechen War (1994-1996) resulted in the utter devastation of Chechnya, a shocking number of ended civilian casualties, and mobilization throughout the business research, Muslim world to provide support for the Chechens in their campaign against Russian imperialism.[29] After the 1996 Khasav-Yurt Accords, which ended the First Chechen War, the CRI remained intact under the leadership of General Aslan Maskhadov.

The resulting “interwar” period “saw a critical mass of groups from criminals, anti-Russian ideologists and essay ap english, religious nationalists to Salafi-jihadist volunteers combine with regional groups, creating cleavages within theseparatist movement”.[30] The weak secular leadership was dependent on support from Sufi orders in school statement Chechnya, which provided the guerilla army recruits and ideological legitimacy for open ended essay, the revolution; at the same time, foreign fighters from the Gulf States and elsewhere in the Muslim world began to spill into the North Caucasus to assist local revolutionaries and conduct what they saw as a mandatory jihad in defense of Muslims.[31] Foreign fighters such as the Saudi commander Ibn al-Khattab (Tamir Saleh Abdullah) were credited with bringing new conservative ideas such as Salafi Islam to the North Caucasus, but initially they were seen as interlopers and troublemakers by locals, and the aim of introducing Chechens to Salafi Islam did not succeed.[32] Over time, however, Salafi Islam gained traction as Maskhadov’s government collapsed. Maskhadov and the revolutionary leadership attempted to paper over divides in the movement and tried to maintain the cease-fire with the Russian Army, despite pressure from what to write a paper, local warlords and Islamists. The growing influence of foreign fighters forced Maskhadov to make significant concessions, such as ending the Chechen Parliament and instituting shari’ah courts in 1996.[33] This change was sweeping: it made any Russian law or legal court invalid in the CRI and replaced it with a Supreme Shari’ah Court modeled after the criminal code of Sudan.[34] A major issue with the court was that it required individuals with experience in Islamic jurisprudence to serve as qadi (judges); the only people in the CRI with this sort of expertise were Salafi Muslims, giving them complete control over essay, the legal system.[35] With this new source of power, Salafi jurists began issuing rulings that directly antagonized Sufi tariqa , including authorizing the medical editing services, destruction of several Sufi shrines and a ban on dhikr .[36] This created a large fissure between the Salafi and open essay, Sufi supporters of the Chechen revolution, and alcohol, the concession backfired as Maskhadov lost both sources of his legitimacy to rule. Overall, Salafi-jihadist groups became emboldened, and several former Chechen nationalist warlords shifted their support from the open ap english, state to the foreign fighters. The most notable of these warlords was Shamil Basayev, a seasoned Chechen military commander who became the emir of Ibn al-Khattab’s Islamic International Peacekeeping Brigade (IIPB) in 1999. When the Chechen Republic was a quasi-independent state during the 1990s, candidates in elections would not declare allegiance to a political party, but rather would openly declare which tariqa had backed them.[37] During the later stages of Maskhadov’s government, the five chapters, previously secular Chechen government began increasingly turning toward particular Sufi orders to infuse their ideology with Islamic content and open ended ap english, provide a “middle ground” between the chapters thesis, government and open ended, the increasing influence of more conservative interpretations of Islam. After the fall of the Maskhadov government, Moscow’s intervention into the political affairs of the Chechen Republic and its hand-selecting of candidates for do i a paper, leadership positions did not erase this dynamic; it merely created the perception that certain tariqa were aligned with or indebted to the Russian central government. In reconstructing the Chechen Republic, Putin and the Russian government placed a great deal of faith and political resources into the former Grand Mufti of Chechnya, Akhmad-Haji Kadyrov, his son Ramzan, and their Qadiri tariqa .[38] Many of the shari’ah courts established under Maskhadov were prohibited by the Kadyrovs, and disbanded. In 2004, the elder Kadyrov was assassinated by Salafists in the Chechen capital of Groznyy during a World War II memorial parade. The same promotion of Sufi ideology and ended ap english, the Qadiri tariqa continues under the leadership of his son, Ramzan, who was appointed Head of Chechnya in 2007 and remains in power today.

The younger Kadyrov has created a cult of personality around himself and his martyred father, and uses the substantial resources he receives from the Russian central state and the ideological legitimacy from the Qadiri brotherhood to wage an all-out war on Salafi movements in Chechnya. Qadiriyya supremacy in quality official religious institutions drained resources and support from other Sufi tariqa in the Chechen Republic, particularly the Naqshbandi order. The Kadyrov family’s political preference towards the Qadiri tariqa exacerbated the differences between the previously co-existent Naqshbandi and Qadiri orders: although both are highly connected to Chechen nationalism, organized similarly, and have taken revolutionary stances in the past against the Russian government, the open essay ap english, form of dhikr practiced by the Qadiriyya is loud, public, and demonstrative, while the Naqshbandi dhikr is silent, private, and contemplative. In terms of leadership, “Qadiri adherents favored a more centralized form of organization than Naqshbandis and placed more stress on the role of business papers individual sheikhs”.[39] The preferences of the essay, Kadyrov family placed the Naqshbandi order outside the scope of public institution-building, which made it a “second-class” order to the Qadiriyya. How can one describe the “official version” of Chechen Islam as advocated by need to write a paper the Kadyrov family? It resembles no other system of Islam in the world a conglomerate of open essay Qadiri thought, the management, political realities of the ended, Chechen Republic, and personal idiosyncrasies. As described by essay management one observer: [Islam] in Kadyrov’s Chechnya is an outlandish mish-mash created from the preferences of Kadyrov himself (amongst other things, his passion for open ap english, noisy, glittering contests and sumptuous festivals), national customs, Chechen messianism, twisted fragments of shari’a, secular social practices, abstract slogans of unity with Russia, and many other things. With the best will in the world, it is hard to call this a coherent social doctrine.[40] The lack of similarity with any other Sufi doctrines around the world reveals the unique political considerations at play behind why “Kadyrovism” has developed as it has.

In this case, there may be very little that is “traditional” about the “traditionalist” variant of Islam. The Chechen state plays an official role in editing services disseminating this form of Islam through the appointed network of Sufi leaders and shaykhs concentrated in the Muftiate (the official state board of clerics tasked with interpreting Islamic law). The public funds used for Islamic projects such as the building of mosques and financial aid for ended essay ap english, Chechens going on hajj , government-run Islamic education programs and schools, and Kadyrov-backed social campaigns and public demonstrations.[41] There is no part of political, civic, or social life in the Chechen Republic that has been left untouched by state religious institutions. However, the growing connection between the Qadiri hierarchy and the Chechen government “discourages support from a certain section of the populationyoung people who are still studying or just finished their educationprecisely this notion of collaboration drives young people into the ranks of the [Salafis]”.[42] Like conservative Muslim political movements in other areas of the world, Salafi Muslims in the Chechen Republic have developed their own set of “parallel institutions”: schools, mosques, and political mobilization. For the majority of medical school statement services post-Soviet history, Chechen Salafis have used militant and insurgent movements as their primary political institutions, as many traditional methods of contestation have been shut off to Salafi adherents. The Salafi regional militant groups are referred to as jamaat . Due to the threat of persecution, it is hard to gauge how prevalent Salafism is in the Chechen Republic or how many followers it has. Nevertheless, evidence of Salafi demonstrations and organizations in the Chechen Republic is abundant, and at a bare minimum it exists as a “boogeyman” in political discourse due to Kadyrov’s constant comments that “Wahhabists” and open ended ap english, “foreign terrorists” are a threat to the Republic and the “traditional form of Islam”.[43] Many of the trends driving the development of Sufi Islam in the Chechen Republic are predicated on the global growth of Salafism, even if its influence in the Chechen Republic is writing essay school limited. Salafi institutions in open ap english the Chechen Republic have undergone three distinct transformations during the post-Soviet era: first, from small battalions of foreign fighters during the interwar period to essay quality management large militant insurgency groups (19961999); second, from ended essay ap english, regional organizations to pan-Caucasian Salafi organizations under the medical school personal statement editing, global framework of Al Qaeda (19992012); and finally and most recently, as a result of cross-border movement of militants to join the essay ap english, conflicts in Syria and Iraq (2012present).[44] A result of the third transformation is the growing popularity of the Islamic State of do i Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), a transnational Salafi-jihadist militant group, amongst Salafis in the Chechen Republic.

This has been demonstrated by online declarations of support posted by Chechen Salafi leaders, and an incident in open ap english 2015 where graffiti was found in Kadyrov’s hometown of Tsentaroi (Khosi-Yurt), including the ISIL flag and essay, an English declaration that “Khosi-Yurt is Support ISIS (sic)”.[45] Until 2015, most Salafi militant groups in the Chechen Republic were allied with Imarat Kavkaz , an Al Qaeda regional affiliate, but most have now switched to ISIL since Imarat Kavkaz regional emir Aslan Byutukayev declared allegiance to ISIL in June 2015.[46] While the dynamic of competition between Al Qaeda and ISIL plays out in a number of areas around the world, the particular transformation in the North Caucasus is partially a result of changes in ended the local political environment; groups adapt to become more successful in dynamic and what need, rapidly changing political atmospheres. B. Ap English. Methods of business research Competition. The Chechen Republic’s Sufi and Salafi Muslim institutions compete with one another politically in three separate ways: through violent attacks and campaigns; through establishment of mosques, schools, and public infrastructure; and through ideological competition. Open Essay. Of these three methods, violent interactions are the most visible and therefore measurable. In the Chechen Republic, there have been numerous attacks by five chapters thesis the official Sufi institutions against Salafi adherents and open essay ap english, vice versa. What Need To Write. Kadyrov’s personal militia (referred to ended essay ap english as the Kadyrovtsy ) is mainly made up of Qadiri adherents, many of whom were former warlords and insurgents during the Chechen Wars. The Kadyrovtsy , with help from the Russian FSB (the Federal’naja Sluzhba Bezopasnosti the main security agency in the Russian Federation, and the primary successor to the USSR’s KGB), were largely successful in of drinking essay eliminating organized insurgent activity in essay the mountainous wooded areas of the Chechen Republic, and the overall rate of research papers terrorist attacks in the Republic has dropped off considerably since Kadyrov’s installation in 2007.[47] In urban areas, the open essay, Chechen police and the Interior Ministry also enforce the religious norms and do i need, rulings of the Muftiate. Ended Ap English. For example, they ensure that dress codes are followed and citizens attend mosque during prayer times, and are also tasked with cracking down on adherents of alternative or non-normative faiths, especially Salafi Islam.[48] Dress code rules are indicative of the essay management, amalgamation of Islam that Kadyrov has created: the police enforce conservative rules such as female modest dress and the wearing of hijab , but also profile, harass, and sometimes arrest men for wearing their beards “Salafi-style” (long and unshaven, without a mustache).[49] The Chechen police and Interior Ministry are highly successful in countering terrorism when looking at the numbers alone; yet they often use extreme methods, including torture, scapegoating, forced “disappearances”, and the targeting of family members to accomplish their aims.[50] Their violent tactics are, without a doubt, a major push factor for Chechen adherents of Salafi Islam.

Salafi institutions also legitimate violence to compete with the state-run Sufi institutions for influence. Open. During the 2000s, the essay, organization Imarat Kavkaz (Caucasus Emirate) was responsible for a slew of terrorist attacks throughout the Chechen Republic, the North Caucasus, and Russia as a whole. Although Salafi militant movements are far less organized today than they were in the past, individual adherents still manage to open ended essay conduct pointed attacks against Sufi religious infrastructure. In late 2015, a group of (presumably Salafi) arsonists burned down the mausoleum of a 19th century Sufi saint from the Qadiri tariqa in the town of Shali; Salafis view elaborate gravesites for saints as contrary to an autobiographical essay for grad the Islamic principle of tawhid (monotheism).[51] After a brief period of open ended essay ap english inactivity, it appears that the rise of ISIL has motivated local Chechen Salafis to need a paper challenge the official institutions through violence. Between 500 and 5,000 Chechens have left the Republic for essay ap english, Syria and Iraq, and the 2014 establishment of Vilayat Kavkaz an official branch of ISIL in the Caucasus threatens to writing for grad bring insurgency violence back to the Chechen Republic. In 2014, clashes between the Kadyrovtsy and militants associated with Vilayat Kavkaz in the Chechen capital city of Groznyy resulted in several deaths and a symbolic strike into the heart of Kadyrov’s area of control.[52] Since that time, anti-Sufi and anti-Kadyrov activity on behalf of Salafi groups and individuals has increased in regularity. In many ways, the outward displays of Sufi-Salafi violent conflict are merely a veneer for most of the open ended ap english, political competition, which occurs through institutional forums: the essay, official state mosques, schools, and public movements and the “parallel” underground institutions of the Salafis. Interestingly, while the Qadiri tariqa has a near-monopoly on state resources and political capital, competition between political institutions still occurs in the Chechen Republic. Where the Sufis have the open essay, advantage in terms of traditional resources, the Salafis benefit from strongly criticizing the connection between the Sufi tariqa and the corrupt, authoritarian Chechen central state, which gives them ideological leverage and research papers, a “moral high ground”.[53] Each group attempts to leverage its advantages to gain an edge in the competition for ended essay ap english, adherents and political power.

Sufi organizations in writing an autobiographical for grad the Chechen Republic are involved in a number of ap english goodwill activities, whereby they attempt to curry favor with the Republic’s citizens and provide an essay for grad school alternative to conservative Salafism. Using state budgets, the Muftiate has made “[significant contributions] to the reconstruction of ziarats (Sufi holy sites) and ended ap english, the creation of magnificent mosques and Islamic educational establishments in the style of Turkish architecture, as well as to five chapters thesis the construction of houses, stadiums, and parks of rest for children and adults”.[54] These projects attempt to demonstrate a moral-humanistic dimension to Islam and the administration’s extensive finances and connections. Official Sufi educational training centers, funded by a state-supported organization named after Akhmed-Haji Kadyrov, have grown in popularity and size. Official competitions in open ended essay ap english Quran recitation and Chechen folk arts (dancing, horseback riding, wrestling, and martial arts) are held frequently by the government, and writing, public dhikr ceremonies occur regularly. In addition, social movements and protests that align with the government’s interpretation of open ended Islam are usually financially assisted with state funds. Business Communication Research. Kadyrov’s regime held public (some reportedly mandatory) protests against the Jyllands-Posten cartoons depicting the Prophet Muhammad #65018; and has funded anti-alcohol, pro-hijab, and pro-Putin demonstrations under the auspices of the essay, NGO Islamskii Put’ (The Islamic Way).[55] Kadyrov’s efforts mark a major change in the organization of Muslim infrastructure building in the Chechen Republic. During the Chechen Wars, most of the social aid and reconstruction efforts were financed by Salafis with donations pouring in from around the Muslim world.[56] Partially due to the disruption of business communication global Salafi financial networks during the War on Terror, and partially due to Kadyrov’s crackdown on Salafi institutions, the Salafi groups active today in the Chechen Republic are at a large disadvantage when it comes to open ended essay ap english economic resources. To garner support for their activities, the preferred arena of competition is not capital, but ideology. Contemporary Salafis use a wide array of networking tools including social media sites like vKontakte and the websites KavkazCenter and need, IslamDin to open ended essay ap english recruit followers and alcohol essay, issue biting critiques of Kadyrov (often referred to by Salafis as “Kafirov” from the Arabic kafir , unbeliever) and his conceptualization of Sufi Islam.[57] They report on open ended, the brutal counter-measures used by the Chechen police and Interior Ministry, collaboration between Kadyrov and the central Russian government, and Salafi-jihadist movements throughout the North Caucasus and the world.

Salafi ideological critiques of Kadyrov rest on what need to write a paper, a handful of premises, based on the work of scholars influential to open ap english the global Salafi movement, including Ibn Taymiyyah, Mohammad ibn Abd al Wahhab, Said Qutb, Osama Bin Laden, Ayman al-Zawahiri, Anwar al-Awlaki, Abu Mohammad Asim al-Maqdisi, and management, Chechnya’s own contribution, Shamil Basayev.[58] Salafis argue for open essay, strict application of shari’ah law, with no regard to pre-Islamic folk practices. They view the Qadiri Sufi legal system, which combines shari’ah principles with Chechen adat (folk laws) as a conflation between the role of Allah ( subhanahu wa ta’ala ) and the role of five humans. In addition, they find many of the personalistic interpretations of the Quran and hadith used in Sufi Islam (e.g. the emphasis on dhikr , sometimes with the ended essay, use of musical instruments, and business, Sufi mystical practices) to be bid’a , or unnecessary deviation from the original law. Another critique concerns Sufi celebration of open ended various saints and holy figures, including the common practice of five chapters praying at gravesites. Drawing on the work of al Wahhab, Salafis argue that this is to ascribe to ended human entities the status of medical school personal statement Allah ( subhanahu wa ta’ala ), a major sin that is open ended ap english referred to as shirk (polytheism). Finally, and most importantly, modern Salafi writings center around a concept referred to as ‘al wala, wa’l bara (loyalty and disavowal). According to the Salafi interpretation, it is forbidden for Muslims to collaborate with non-Muslims when it comes to juridical matters. Kadyrov’s active subordination of Chechen Muslims to the Russian legal system is therefore considered treasonous, insofar as the general perception amongst Salafists is what need that Orthodox Christians dominate the Russian government. Compared to Kadyrov’s seemingly disjointed approach to Islam and shari’ah , the Salafi approach appears to be far more meticulous and essay, parsimonious.

Some official Sufi rulings in the Chechen Republic are clearly similar to Salafi fiqh (jurisprudence), in particular rulings governing private life (e.g. the enforcement of disadvantages hijab , mandatory prayer and open ended ap english, mosque attendance, strict regulation of Ramadan fasting), but their rulings on school statement editing, public affairs directly dispute Salafi fiqh altogether (e.g. Open Ap English. deference to essay Putin, public practice of open ended essay dhikr , and using state money to rebuild the gravesites of Sufi saints). As opposed to the “pick-and-choose” strategy employed by Kadyrov in regard to Islam, Salafism represents an all-encompassing world system for its followers, one that does not distinguish between public and private life to what a paper make itself politically appealing to secular state authorities. This gives Salafi preachers and mosques the upper hand in terms of recruiting followers who are concerned about their Islamic identity. The strategy of using this ideological angle despite the clear deficiency in traditional resources is referred to as “outbidding”, and forms a critical part of the competition between Sufi and Salafi institutions.[59] Salafis in essay ap english Chechnya have been most successful in recruiting younger Chechens, especially those with significant socioeconomic disadvantages, a criminal background, or conflicts with the security services.[60] While violence, attacks, and public suppression are the quality management, most commonly assessed tactics of competition between Sufi and Salafi institutions in the Chechen Republic, the ended essay ap english, political nature of the conflict also has effects on the “hidden transcript” of competition, most of which occurs in the realm of institution formation and ideology. C. Factors in Competition. The competition between Sufis and Salafis in the Chechen Republic tells us a great deal about the factors involved in generating intra-religious competition. Returning to the section on methodology, the Chechen situation represents an important counter-example to theories that place ideology or social dissatisfaction as the sole driving force behind institutional conflict. In this case, there is a clear example of a changing political dynamic the to write a paper, end of the Chechen War and the installation of Kadyrov as a local proxy of the Russian central government that shaped which Muslim institutions had access to political and economic resources, adherents, and ideological legitimacy. The ideological perspective is open ap english invalidated because in this case, religious ideology is the writing an autobiographical essay for grad, dependent , not the independent variable. Two decades ago, both the Sufi tariqa and Salafi jamaat in the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria were involved in violent resistance against the Russian central government, as well as a multitude of open essay ap english social aid and reconstruction programs. Chapters. Contrary to ideological theories of change, the ideology of Sufi and Salafi groups remained intact over the past 20 years; what occurred instead was a centralization of open ended essay political control in the hands of specific Sufi orders that changed the relationship of the two groups to particular political methods.

Salafi adherents became associated with resistance, terrorism, and underground institutions, while the Qadiriyya heavily leveraged repressive state violence, infrastructure-building, and public demonstrations to promote their interpretation of Islam. In short, the political atmosphere of the Chechen Republic in the post-war period created a disparity between the levels of connectedness of Muslim institutions to state resources, which aligned the pro-Putin interests of the Kadyrov family with the state-controlled Sufi orders and writing for grad, created an antagonistic ideological relationship between Sufis and Salafis. Ended Essay. The inverse situation, where ideological differences create a particular political atmosphere that breeds competition, did not occur in the Chechen Republic during this time period. Sociological explanations also fail to explain this situation in its entirety. The impact of the Kadyrov family’s political impositions cannot be underestimated; in this light we can understand the competition between Muslim groups as a reaction to dynamics of Islam in writing essay for grad the region, not due to Russian imperialism alone. Open Ended Essay Ap English. During the Chechen Wars, Russian impositions in the Chechen Republic’s politics were at an autobiographical essay for grad, their highest; yet the Sufi-led resistance movement and open ended ap english, Salafi foreign fighters were not at odds with one another. An Autobiographical Essay. At times they even collaborated, and they shared many of the same goals and methods including social projects, militancy, and the establishment of an essay ap english independent Chechen state free from Russian oppression.

Interestingly, the periods with the business communication papers, highest incidence of open essay ap english Sufi-Salafi conflict have occurred during times when the Russian central government was the least involved in Chechen politics, during the interwar period and during the Kadyrov period. Incidence of political and ideological competition peaked during these periods, because the local government was highly dependent on connections with religious institutions for ruling legitimacy. Services. This is an unexpected result: while Russian colonialism and open, the Soviet period undoubtedly set the stage for some of the management, events in ended Chechen history during the post-Soviet period, religious competition between Muslim institutions does not seem to have been affected by the historical situation. The political-institutional approach is validated by the rise of institutional conflict between Sufis and Salafis in the Chechen Republic as a result of the Kadyrov family’s extensive use and support of the Qadiri tariqa to management achieve its political ends. This politicized the dynamics of ended essay religion and polarized Muslim institutions to either clamor for state support or reject the need a paper, collaboration between mosque and state altogether. Sufi and Salafi institutions utilized different tools to gain followers, resources, and ended essay, ideological legitimacy, sometimes completely switching their positions on or abandoning a particular method that made them successful in the past. For example, the position of the Sufi tariqa leadership to try to thesis accommodate Salafi foreign fighters during the interwar period changed to outright hostility when the Russian central government began supporting and subsidizing the Sufi leadership to combat Salafism. These sea changes were generated by the large political shift that came with the open ended, devolution of political and religious authority to the republican level: without a mutual enemy (the Russian central government), Sufi and Salafi groups began taking different stances on five chapters, whether collaborating with a local Chechen Muslim regime with a particular ideology was legitimate or necessary.

As a result, the over-imposition of the regime into the religious life of the Republic sparked tensions between the different Muslim institutions and open essay ap english, caused them to turn on each other. Political alliances between the Sufi tariqa leadership and the government of the Chechen Republic have caused a power imbalance between the specific tariqa and alternative forms of Islam in the Republic, wherein Sufi orders have an abundance of economic resources and finances and unparalleled access to the security services. They use capital, economic connections, and control over medical school personal statement editing services, the policing apparatus to out-muscle Salafi groups and open, silence dissent. In turn, the Salafi organizations are pushed away from political and economic engagement and toward violence, terrorism, and ideological “out-bidding”. The situation in the Chechen Republic clearly illustrates why and research papers, how Sufi and ended ap english, Salafi institutions view their relationship as inherently zero-sum and disadvantages alcohol, competitive. The result has been ideological conflict and mass violence. Given this background, is Sufi-Salafi coexistence possible in the Chechen Republic, or has the investment in establishing an “official” form of Islam in the Chechen Republic permanently erased any chance of reconciliation? The answer is open ended essay ap english not simple and will require large-scale shifts in institution-building. First and foremost, to level the playing field, the republican government must substantially divest economic support and ideological investment from the disadvantages essay, Sufi tariqas and introduce measures leading toward separation of mosque and state. This would include dismantling and revising state religious authorities that only represent a single branch of Islam, such as the Muftiate in the Chechen Republic. Salafi groups cannot, in essay ap english good faith, enter into negotiations and de-radicalization programs as long as they perceive the republican government, security services, and official Islamic institutions as one and the same.

Only after this step is achieved can the an autobiographical for grad school, republican governments attempt programs aimed at Sufi-Salafi dialogue. Otherwise, the most radical viewpoints on either side have zero incentive to cooperate and ended essay, may even lash out against the groups that did accede to negotiations. Thesis. To erase the toxic legacy of essay ap english previous decades, long-term reconciliation programs need to be given a substantial amount of time to achieve results. However, there is almost no chance that any reconciliation effort will be implemented in the near future, given the nature of the current regime. The republican government has strong political disincentives to pursue these programs: they would completely alienate their traditional base, reduce their control over the societies and alcohol, states that they currently govern with an iron fist, and potentially incite backlash and violence directed against them. In the Chechen Republic, there are no signs that Ramzan Kadyrov is willing to open up dialogue on the topic of Islam or take a softer approach to Salafis. Thus, the problem of Sufi-Salafi competition and ended essay ap english, intra-faith conflict is likely to continue indefinitely in the North Caucasus. The result is likely to be a continuation of violence, persecution, and societal schisms that will plague the chapters, Chechen Republic for decades to come. [1] Kunta-Haji Kishiev was a Chechen Sufi mystic and the ideological founder of the Qadiri tariqa in Chechnya.

[2] In most Muslim societies, “traditionalists” and essay, “conservatives” often refer to the same group. In the North Caucasus, this begs the question of tradition; “traditionalists” in this sense attempt to retain ethno-nationalist traditions, but not necessarily religious ones. [3] Many authors and medical, regional sources use the open, term “Wahhabi” or “Wahhabist” to refer to writing essay conservative iterations of open essay ap english Islam in the North Caucasus. What Need. This article favors “Salafi”, as there are deep methodological and political issues with using the former term. There are critical distinctions between the Salafi tradition as practiced in the North Caucasus and the school of thought derived from the teachings of Muhammad ibn Abd ‘al Wahhab (1703-1792).

For more, see Wiktor-Mach, 63-65. [4] March and Olsen, 735. [8] Sadowski, 220-222. [9] Weismann, 144-150. [11] Wiktor-Mach, 68-69. [12] Knysh, 513-514. [13] For examples of ideological approaches, see Lanksoy (2002), Sagramoso (2012), and ended essay, Hahn (2014).

For examples of sociological approaches, see Schaefer (2010), Akaev (2014a, 2014b), and Campana and Ratelle (2014) [14] Wiktor-Mach, 63. [15] Yemelianova, “Islam, Nationalism and State in the Muslim Caucasus”, 8-10. [17] Yemelianova, “Islam and Power in Post-Communist Islamic Russia”, 1. [19] This homogeneity has not always been the case; prior to 1991, many ethnic Russians and other minorities lived in the Chechen Republic. [All-Russia Population Census] has the most updated data. [20] Swirszcz, 60-61.

[26] Vatchagaev, “Sufism in Chechnya”, 222. [27] Akaev, “The History and Specifics of Contemporary Islamic Revival in the Chechen Republic”, 90. [28] Vatchagaev, “Sufism in five Chechnya”, 222-223. [30] Moore and Tumelty, 74. [34] Akaev, “Religious and Political Elites in the Northern Caucasus: Formation, Ideological Contradictions, and Practical Opposition” [37] Vatchagaev . “Sufism in Chechnya”, 227. [38] The name “Kadyrov” (sometimes spelled as “Qadyrov”/”Qadirov”) itself indicates that the open essay, family is a follower of the Qadiri tariqa . [41] Akaev, “The History and Specifics of Contemporary Islamic Revival in the Chechen Republic”, 95-100.

[42] Vatchagaev, “Sufism in Chechnya”, 231. [43] Avedissian, 10-15. [45] Vatchagaev, “Increased Insurgent Activity Reported in Chechnya”, 1-2. [46] Flood, “The Islamic State Raises its Black Flag over the Caucasus”, 2. [47] O’Loughlin et al., 596-600. [48] Souleimanov, “An ethnography of counterinsurgency: kadyrovtsy and Russia's policy of business communication papers Chechenization” 91-100. [49] Yaffa, “Chechyna’s ISIS Problem” [51] [Caucasian Knot], “ ” [Residents of Chechnya censure suspects in arson of a ziyarat] [52] Flood, “The Caucasus Emirate: From Anti-Colonialist Roots to Salafi-Jihad.” 8. [53] Campana and Ratelle, 124.

[54] Akaev, “The History and Specifics of Contemporary Islamic Revival in the Chechen Republic”, 99. [57] Sagaramoso 563. [59] Whitmeyer, 25-40. Akaev, Vakhit. 2014a. “Religious and Political Elites in essay the Northern Caucasus: Formation, Ideological Contradictions, and Practical Opposition.” Central Asia the Caucasus 15 (1). Quality Management. online. . 2014b. “The History and Specifics of Contemporary Islamic Revival in the Chechen Republic.” Anthropology Archeology of Eurasia 53 (2): 79102.

Avedissian, Karena. 2015. “Clerics, Weightlifters, and Politicians: Ramzan Kadyrov’s Instagram as an Official Project of Chechen Memory and Identity Production.” Caucasus Survey , 124. Campana, Aurélie, and Jean-François Ratelle. 2014. “A Political Sociology Approach to open ended ap english the Diffusion of Conflict from Chechnya to Dagestan and Ingushetia.” Studies in Conflict Terrorism 37 (2): 11534. Flood, Derek.

2014. “The Caucasus Emirate: From Anti-Colonialist Roots to Salafi-Jihad.” CTC Sentinel 7 (3): 1317. . 2015. Personal Editing Services. “The Islamic State Raises its Black Flag over the Caucasus.” CTC Sentinel 8 (6): 14. Gill, Anthony. 2001. Ended Essay Ap English. “Religion and Comparative Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 4 (1): 11738. Hahn, Gordon M. Writing An Autobiographical. 2014. The Caucasus Emirate Mujahedin: Global Jihadism in open Russia’s North Caucasus and Beyond . Disadvantages Essay. Jefferson, NC: McFarland Publishing. Hefner, Robert W. 2009. Remaking Muslim Politics: Pluralism, Contestation, Democratization . Open Ended Ap English. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Henze, Paul B. 1995. Islam in the North Caucasus: The Example of Chechenia . Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. Knysh, Alexander.

2007. “Contextualizing the SalafiSufi Conflict (from the Northern Caucasus to Hadramawt).” Middle Eastern Studies 43 (4): 50330. Lanskoy, Miriam. 2002. “Daghestan and Chechnya: The Wahhabi Challenge to the State.” SAIS Review 22 (2): 16792. Lapidus, Ira M. 1996. “State and Religion in Islamic Societies.” Past and Present 151: 327. March, James G, and business research papers, Johan P Olsen. 1983. Open Ended Essay. “The New Institutionalism: Organizational Factors in Political Life.” American Political Science Review 78 (3): 73449. Moore, Cerwyn. 2015. Essay. “Foreign Bodies: Transnational Activism, the Insurgency in the North Caucasus and ‘Beyond.’” Terrorism and Political Violence 27 (3): 395415. Moore, Cerwyn, and Paul Tumelty. 2009. “Assessing Unholy Alliances in Chechnya: From Communism and Nationalism to Islamism and Salafism.” Journal of Communist Studies and ap english, Transition Politics 25 (1): 7394. O’Loughlin, John, Edward C Holland, and Frank DW Witmer.

2011. “The Changing Geography of Violence in Russia’s North Caucasus, 1999-2011: Regional Trends and Local Dynamics in Dagestan, Ingushetia, and Kabardino-Balkaria.” Eurasian Geography and alcohol essay, Economics 52 (5): 596630. Reynolds, Michael. 2005. Open Ended. “Myths and Mysticism: A Longitudinal Perspective on Islam and Conflict in the North Caucasus.” Middle Eastern Studies 41 (1): 3154. Ridgeon, Lloyd. 2015. Sufis and Salafis in the Contemporary Age . London, UK: Bloomsbury Publishing. Ro’i, Yaacov. 2000.

Islam in the Soviet Union: From the Second World War to personal statement editing Gorbachev . New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Russell, John. Open Ended Essay. 2010. “Kadyrov’s Strategy against Extremism in Chechnya.” In Russia and Islam: State, Society and Radicalism , edited by Roland Dannruether and Luke March, 1253. London, UK: Routledge Publishing. Sadowski, Yahya. 2006. Writing An Autobiographical Essay For Grad. “Political Islam: Asking the Wrong Questions?” Annual Review of Political Science 9: 21540. Sagramoso, Domitilla. Essay. 2012. “The Radicalisation of Islamic Salafi Jamaats in the North Caucasus: Moving Closer to business communication research the Global Jihadist Movement?” Europe-Asia Studies 64 (3): 56195.

Schaefer, Robert W. Essay. 2010. The Insurgency in Chechnya and the North Caucasus: From Gazavat to Jihad . Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Souleimanov, Emil. For Grad School. 2015a. Open Ended Essay. “An Ethnography of Counterinsurgency: Kadyrovtsy and Russia’s Policy of Chechenization.” Post-Soviet Affairs 31 (2): 91114. Swirszcz, Joanna. 2009. “The Role of Islam in Chechen National Identity.” Nationalities Papers 37 (1): 5988.

Vatchagaev, Mairbek. 2014. “Sufism in Chechnya.” In Chechyna at War and Beyond , edited by Anne Le Huérou, Aude Merlin, Amandine Regamey, and Elisabeth Sieca-Kozlowski, 1244. London, UK: Routledge Publishing. . 2015. “Increased Insurgent Activity Reported in Chechnya.” Eurasia Daily Monitor 12 (46): 12. Weismann, Itzchak. 2011. “Modernity from personal, Within: Islamic Fundamentalism and Sufism.” Der Islam 86 (1): 14270. Whitmeyer, Kevin. 2015. “Religious Outbidding in Chechnya.” Caucasus Survey 3 (1): 2540. Wiktor-Mach, Dobroslawa. 2009. “Competing Islamic Traditions in the Caucasus.” Caucasian Review of International Affairs 3 (1): 6369. Yaffa, Joshua.

2016. “Chechnya’s ISIS Problem.” The New Yorker , February 12. Online. Yemelianova, G. 2002. “Islam and Power in Post-Communist Islamic Russia.” ISIM Newsletter 10: 1. Yemelianova, Galina. 2014. “Islam, Nationalism and ended essay, State in disadvantages of drinking essay the Muslim Caucasus.” Caucasus Survey 1 (2): 323. “ [All-Russia Population Census].” 2010. Moscow, Russia. Online. [ Caucasian Knot ] . 2015. “ Residents of open ended ap english Chechnya censure suspects in the arson of a ziarat],” November 19. Online.

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10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. The post will give you the 10 most common IELTS Writing Task 2 topics. A question my students keep asking, again and again, is #8216;What are the most common IELTS writing part 2 topics?#8217; They are worried that they won#8217;t be familiar with the topic and open ended will not have any relevant ideas. This is alcohol essay, especially true for students from #8216;developing#8217; countries, because most of the questions are #8216;first world#8217; problems and issues. Ended Essay Ap English? Let#8217;s turn that disadvantage into an advantage. To answer the essay quality question I have asked my students over the last few years to send me the topics on their exams. A big thank you, to those students, who were kind enough to send me their questions.

I have built up a huge amount of questions and I think it is open ended essay ap english, about time to analyse them. Are the same Writing Task 2 topics repeated? The answer is yes and no. There are a huge amount of topics that come up in management writing task 2. At last count there were around 50 different topics (based on collecting data over open essay, the last few years) and if you would like all 50, please let me know, but I#8217;m more concerned about the topics that come up again and to write a paper again. If you have time to familiarise yourself with over 50 topics then please do, but I think must people have to be smart with their time and it therefore makes more sense to prioritise the most common topics. I try to encourage my students to essay ap english, be efficient when it comes to learning. However, I don#8217;t agree with the saying #8216;Work smart, not hard#8217; as this implies you can do very little work and still achieve your goals. My motto is work hard and smart. Essay For Grad School? There are 10 general topics that come up more often than all of the rest put together.

They are: So what can I do with this information? Now you know the common topics there are 3 things you can do: 1. Develop a vocabulary list for each topic. Having relevant vocabulary for each topic will give you a big advantage. Many students fail to provide relevant vocabulary and their band score suffers. When looking at essay new vocabulary try to guess the meaning from context first and medical personal editing then look up the open meaning to make sure your idea matches the actual meaning. Also, be sure to look at the word within a sentence to be aware of the way it relates to chapters, other words.

When recording vocabulary do it in a way that will help YOU remember it. Everyone learns in a different way and everyone learns vocabulary in a different way. Some people like to draw pictures beside the word, some people like to write synonyms or antonyms, others prefer to write a few sentences and some people like to use the phonemic chart to ended, write the communication word that way. Whatever works for you, do it. It is also very important to review words regularly. Ended Essay? This is the business papers most effective way to remember the words. So many people learn lots of words and a week later they can’t remember them. I would recommend reviewing them one day after learning them for the first time, then one week later and open ended essay ap english then finally one month later. After that they should be firmly stuck in your head for five chapters thesis, good. I am developing a vocabulary list for ended essay, each of the topics above which you can access here. Essay? 2. Practice reading and listening within these topics.

To do well on your IELTS test you should practice at ended essay home. Medical School Personal Statement Editing? Even just 60 minutes per day can make a big difference. This will not only improve all four skills but familiarise you with the common topics at the same time. Open Ended Essay? Why waste time listening or reading something, if it is about something that probably won#8217;t come up on the test? Unless of course you are listening or reading for pleasure, in five that case, be my guest. If you are reading an English newspaper, look for articles on the common topics and highlight any good vocabulary. If you like listening to the radio or podcasts, find ones on the common topics. Please check out my 25 online language learning tools for lots of ways you can study at home for free.

This method is open ended essay ap english, so effective that some of the best IELTS schools are starting to adopt this approach. Do I Need To Write A Paper? If you are going to open, study or practice anything then do it within the context of one of the common topics. For example, if you are practicing speaking with a friend on disadvantages alcohol, Skype, why not discuss one of the issues above? If you are practicing writing essays, find a question about one of the most popular or repeated IELTS topics. This method allows you to practice both the skills and learn about these crucial topics. They also come up quite a lot in the speaking test. Can I just focus on these topics and open ended ap english get a high band score? Obviously, there is much more to achieving a high score than just focusing on disadvantages of drinking essay, the repeated topics but this will allow you to study and prepare in a smarter and more efficient way, giving you a huge advantage. However, I would like to add that it is also important to open, study things you have a passion for. If you are genuinely interested in disadvantages of drinking alcohol essay a topic then it is open ended ap english, much easier to writing an autobiographical essay for grad school, study and you are less likely to quit. Please also make time to read, listen, talk and write about your passion.

If you love football, read about your team everyday on www.goal.com. Love fashion?- find some fashionista blogs. Have a passion for open essay, photography?- why not blog about it? Have a passion for astrophysics? Listen to star talk radio. I looked at 15 Writing Task 2 papers over July, August and September of 2015 to see if the same common topics were coming up. Here are the business topics: Traditional Culture Government Spending Technology Technology Education Health Technology Traditional Culture Education Health International Aid The Environment Economics Education Health. As you can see, Technology, Health and Education are still prominent Task 2 topics. It was interesting to see Traditional Culture popping up twice in such a short period of time, but that doesn#8217;t mean that it will definitely feature again soon. I still think that Technology, Health, Education and the Environment are important topics and will feature regularly in open ended ap english the future.

Reading within these topics will help you and quality you will also pick up other vocabulary just by reading about them. Essay? The important thing is to read actively. When you see a word you don#8217;t know, note it down and communication papers find out the meaning, collocation and open essay ap english synonyms. Essay? Soon you will have a notebook full of new words and you review them regualelry until they become part of your vocabulary. Here#8217;s a live video I did on Facebook about ended ap english, this topic: I would recommend looking at our IELTS task 2 page for lots more lessons, tips and sample task 2 answers.

The best way to keep up to date with our latest posts is to like our page on Facebook. There are also daily practice activities on our Facebook page. As always, if you have a question about this post or anything else, please let me know in the comments section below. 46 Comments on of drinking alcohol essay, 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics Chris. am not able to watch ur video.any idea? i think the first step is to pass the ielts exam is to understand where you are on in regards to your 4 skills and open essay ap english then prepare your plan ,without plan and agreed source of five knowledge you will be lost . the question is essay, how to what do i need to write a paper, prepare a proper plan to enhance your skills ,get familiar with the exam ? also if you can prepare PDF for all the Tips that we need to take care of open essay ap english during the exam of the 4 skills ,that will be great . hello from uzbekistan))) Hello from Tashkent)) Home » Writing Task 2 » 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. Communication Papers? Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited.

4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom. The information on this site is for information purposes only. IELTS is a registered trademark of University of Cambridge, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia. Ap English? This site and it's owners are not affiliated, approved or endorsed by the University of Cambridge ESOL, the British Council, and essay IDP Education Australia. For full information please refer to our terms and conditions and disclaimer.

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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an ended ap english adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by essay, Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and used in a session in essay ap english, which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an evaluation of the activity as an instrument to elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the participant’s perceptions of the activity and to shed further light on the value of medical school personal statement editing services, this instrument. Conclusions about the open ended essay, applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in particular, the instrument used in this study in second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development. It is five, widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Thought and ended ap english, action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. 25).

Reviewing the five, relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of teaching practice and open essay, social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and writing an autobiographical for grad, theoretical in a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to fit it to teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to open ended essay ap english, verbalize them, to provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. Medical School Personal? there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is open essay ap english, linked to essay management, the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an essential role in the practice of teaching and ap english, teacher education. Need A Paper? It is shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in open ended ap english, teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. Five Chapters? faced in the institutional context the teacher is employed in), and open, own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and is informed through them.

It is important to uncover teachers’ beliefs in medical school statement services, order to ended essay, initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to of drinking essay, facilitate professional development. When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and ended essay ap english, professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. Personal Statement? new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003). Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in contrast to ended essay, theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Quality? Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs.

Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A). Open Ap English? Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and need, articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of personal construct, according to which an individual makes sense of the world by generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. Open Ended? individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an what to write a paper effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ended ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Roberts, 1998, p. 31). Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by medical school editing, Donaghue (2003) the participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and the third is different. The adapted version of the ended essay ap english, repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about writing for grad, language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is open ended ap english, related to an element.

For this reason, conclusion from results of the chapters, instrument must be drawn with caution. Essay Ap English? It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results. Consequently, this study is what need to write, concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves. The study sought to find out how the ap english, adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to disadvantages of drinking essay, elicit teacher beliefs by six teachers at open essay, a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and it was intended to find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. It was assumed that the participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in how far the instrument is capable of initiating reflective thinking. Quality Management? No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument.

Following these considerations the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. How do the participants evaluate the essay ap english, elicitation technique used in research papers, this study? 2. How do the participants perceive the elicitation technique for essay ap english, their professional development? The participants in writing, this study were six teachers at ended, a private middle school in a southeastern city in Turkey. What Need? The pupils attending the open, school come from families belonging to the middle and upper middle class. In order to get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in essay management, repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information. Background of the Participants in the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years. 2 male 45 bachelor 17 years.

3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years. 5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and vary in teaching experience as evidenced by the years of teaching. Open Essay Ap English? Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school. Participant 2 is writing for grad, of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for open, two years. Data Collection Procedures and Tools.

The participants were invited to a session in disadvantages of drinking alcohol, which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the open essay, aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the concept of personal constructs.

2. Participants are divided into pairs. Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the grid (cf. Appendix A). They think of a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the name of the person at the top of the card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is five chapters thesis, given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Open? Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A).

Pairs choose three cards at medical school services, random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is open essay ap english, different writing their personal constructs in disadvantages of drinking essay, the ‘construct’ column. Ended Essay? Participants put a tick to research, the elements that are the same and a cross to ended ap english, the one that is different. 4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the an autobiographical essay school, cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the session, the participants were asked to evaluate the repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately. The aim of the semi-structured interview was to ended ap english, find out if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in essay quality, each of the participants. For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for the data analysis.

During the open ended ap english, repertory grid activity the statement editing, researcher took field notes in order to document how the participants responded to the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the repertory grids, the field notes, the ended, repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of alcohol, this paper). The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009).

The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is essay, organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and the interview as there were overlaps in the data coming from do i a paper both collection tools. Then, it is reported how the teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and ended essay ap english, current contexts and classroom practices. The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on medical personal statement editing, how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the ended ap english, repertory grid activity in general?

All the chapters, participants gave positive comments on the activity in essay ap english, the repertory grid evaluation form, and these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on real people the participants are familiar with. Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the importance of social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about some of the qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to medical school statement editing services, the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1). Two participants emphasised that that the open essay, procedure helped them to formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6).

Two participants pointed to quality, the part during the open ap english, activity when the teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates: I learned much from the what do i need, activity because one of my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and ended essay ap english, our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the of drinking, responses in ended essay, the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. Alcohol Essay? it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development: You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of open ended essay ap english, constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to personal statement editing services, challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by open essay, discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of a teacher: In my point of view I think I have to think again and again of what, so many things; for example one of the characteristics of the teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the time with the kids in order to teach them. Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on.

But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2). Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to be criticised. As the activity helped her to find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and sometimes I laughed at ended essay, those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the participants found can be confirmed by the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to of drinking, elaborate on open ended essay ap english, their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of contributing to disadvantages essay, professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an activity. I want to make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one. I want to be a participant for ended essay, my profession (Interview, participant 6).

What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. Disadvantages Alcohol? The second question of the interview asked for the sources of the beliefs, but did not direct the ended essay ap english, participants to any of the papers, areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord.

Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Areas. participant area mentioned initially. 1 professional coursework. 2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for open essay ap english, their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for school, their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for open essay, these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview. An Autobiographical? The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections. Schooling was mentioned by using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English.

She also talked about one of her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in teaching. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on enquiry, the participants did not deny an ended influence of teacher education on their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by referring to their constructs in the repertory grid.

Participant 4 mentioned the name of one of her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of an autobiographical, things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students. We learned by living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of not only content but also of method in teacher education. In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on.

The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an open ap english influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to the teacher profession. The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is one of the sources ‘ one of business research papers, them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in essay ap english, life in general; one of them is our culture. For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of others, from medical school statement editing services Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of teacher beliefs is perceived as not restricted to open, the immediate school context. Virtually all areas of what do i need to write a paper, life can contribute to professional beliefs.

A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and open ended essay, she linked her belief to a variety of conditions. According to her, public school teachers do not care about writing essay school, their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to their attitude of indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to open ended essay ap english, the reduced amount of class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on the one hand and the willingness of private school students to learn English on the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice. Similar as for schooling and essay management, professional coursework, the open essay ap english, participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year. So I have to be careful about communication research papers, everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson.

So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the open ap english, participants make on how to business communication research, use the elicited beliefs and to develop the open ended, activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to use the elicited beliefs in a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to behave in the teacher profession. The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to what do i to write a paper, reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Open Essay Ap English? Some of the essay, suggestions to develop the essay, activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to writing essay school, be carried out in open ended essay, the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in thesis, a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in criticising and being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to essay, that perception. Business Communication Research Papers? She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of open essay, public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to get outsider views.

To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by quality, participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the contextual factors at public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom: Maybe we could add something to open essay, it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to make them better students every day (…). Medical School Editing Services? You can improve yourself, but you also have to open essay, think of the other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of writing an autobiographical essay, all of essay ap english, their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to the part of the activity in which the partners share their beliefs.

His comment indicates the need to work with the beliefs, not only by confirming or questioning them but also by transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice. As regards the procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the disadvantages alcohol, activity not in written form by writing down constructs and putting ticks and crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Ap English? Fransella et al, 2004, p. Disadvantages Essay? 5: ‘The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and ended ap english, implications for second language teacher education are discussed.

This study was carried out to explore the research, elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through. The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the essay ap english, participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by communication papers, Donaghue (2003). Open Ap English? It qualifies the quality management, instrument for further application, e.g. in pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of ended, teachers to business communication papers, participate in professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003).

It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and ended essay ap english, references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. Need To Write? This is not surprising when the ended, ‘inconsistency’ of teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is taken under consideration, and writing school, it is also not surprising that, independently from ended essay each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point. She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the business research, constructs into positive and open ended, negative ones. One of the papers, participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the activity. Open Ended Essay? From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the do i need to write a paper, data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to open ap english, trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Personal Statement Editing Services? Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them. There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993).

In fact, reflective practice is necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is necessary to evaluate practical reflection. The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and ended ap english, theory together. Bandura, A. Writing An Autobiographical Essay School? (1986). Social foundations of open ended ap english, thought and what do i to write a paper, action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of open, research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109.

Borg, S. (2006). Medical School Personal? Teacher cognition and language education. Research and practice. London: Continuum. Day, R. (1993). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of ap english, Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13.

Donaghue, H. Essay Quality Management? (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351. Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004). A manual for repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. (2002).

The hidden side of the work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13. Gabillon, Z. Essay Ap English? (2012). Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of Language and personal statement editing services, Teaching 3, 190-203.

Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on essay ap english, Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara. Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1: A theory of personality). London: Routledge. Lawes, S. (2003). What, when, how and to write, why? Theory and foreign language teaching.

Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of ended essay, Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. (1998). Do I Need A Paper? Language teacher education. New York: Arnold. Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005).

Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. Thompson, N. Pascal, J. (2012). Open Ended? Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and chapters, Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Ended Essay? Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. (1991). Training foreign language teachers.

A reflective approach. Statement Editing Services? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher. Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation.

The aim of this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and assumptions. Please fill in the requested information. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: ….. Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree.

….. Doctorate degree Other; please specify. Number of years of teaching experience: ….. years. Number of ended essay, years teaching at school personal statement editing services, private/state school: ….. years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’? Appendix C: Semi-structured interview.

1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on essay ap english, your attitude and beliefs about teaching? 2. Five Chapters Thesis? Do you have an idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Ended Ap English? Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at (name of the medical school personal editing services, school)?

3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to open, elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course) 4. Do you have any suggestions on how the activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in business research, our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and open ap english, you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Education essay was submitted to communication research papers, us by open ended, a student in order to business research, help you with your studies.

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