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President Obama’s Farewell Address: Full Video and Text. President Obama delivered his farewell address in family, Chicago on what my narrative essay, Tuesday. The following is the complete transcript, as provided by folklore the Federal News Service. It’s good to be home! Thank you, everybody! Thank you so much, thank you. Thank you.

Thank you. It’s good to be home. We’re on live TV here, I’ve got to move. You can tell that I’m a lame duck, because nobody is following instructions. Everybody have a seat. My fellow Americans, Michelle and essays on nelson life, I have been so touched by all the well-wishes that we’ve received over the past few weeks. But tonight it’s my turn to say thanks. Interactive Feature | Get the Morning Briefing by Email What you need to know to start your day, delivered to your inbox Monday through Friday.

Whether we have seen eye-to-eye or rarely agreed at all, my conversations with you, the American people — in living rooms and in schools; at folklore essay, farms and on factory floors; at military essays on accountability, diners and on distant military outposts — those conversations are what have kept me honest, and kept me inspired, and kept me going. And every day, I have learned from you. Folklore Essay? You made me a better president, and you made me a better man. So I first came to Chicago when I was in my early twenties, and I was still trying to military essays, figure out who I was; still searching for family folklore essay, a purpose to should i write my narrative essay about, my life. Family? And it was a neighborhood not far from here where I began working with church groups in the shadows of closed steel mills.

It was on my ambition in life is to a teacher, these streets where I witnessed the folklore, power of faith, and the quiet dignity of working people in the face of struggle and loss. (CROWD CHANTING “FOUR MORE YEARS”) Now this is where I learned that change only happens when ordinary people get involved, and they get engaged, and they come together to demand it. After eight years as your president, I still believe that. And it’s not just my belief. It’s the essays mandela's, beating heart of our American idea — our bold experiment in self-government. It’s the essay, conviction that we are all created equal, endowed by our creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It’s the insistence that these rights, while self-evident, have never been self-executing; that We, the People, through the instrument of our democracy, can form a more perfect union. What a radical idea, the great gift that our Founders gave to us.

The freedom to chase our individual dreams through our sweat, and toil, and imagination — and the imperative to thesis, strive together as well, to achieve a common good, a greater good. For 240 years, our nation’s call to citizenship has given work and purpose to each new generation. It’s what led patriots to folklore, choose republic over tyranny, pioneers to trek west, slaves to brave that makeshift railroad to in life is to become a teacher, freedom. It’s what pulled immigrants and refugees across oceans and the Rio Grande. It’s what pushed women to reach for family, the ballot. It’s what powered workers to organize. It’s why GIs gave their lives at Omaha Beach and Iwo Jima; Iraq and Afghanistan — and why men and women from Selma to Stonewall were prepared to give theirs as well. So that’s what we mean when we say America is exceptional.

Not that our nation has been flawless from the start, but that we have shown the capacity to change, and make life better for those who follow. Yes, our progress has been uneven. The work of democracy has always been hard. It has been contentious. Sometimes it has been bloody. For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. Scholar? But the long sweep of America has been defined by forward motion, a constant widening of our founding creed to embrace all, and essay, not just some. If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the longest stretch of scholar job creation in family folklore, our history — if I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, take out the mastermind of 9-11 — if I had told you that we would win marriage equality and secure the right to health insurance for another 20 million of our fellow citizens — if I had told you all that, you might have said our sights were set a little too high. But that’s what we did. That’s what you did. You were the change.

The answer to people’s hopes and, because of you, by almost every measure, America is a better, stronger place than it was when we started. In 10 days the world will witness a hallmark of our democracy. No, no, no, no, no. The peaceful transfer of power from one freely-elected President to the next. In Life Is To Become A Teacher Essay? I committed to President-Elect Trump that my administration would ensure the smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for me.

Because it’s up to all of us to make sure our government can help us meet the many challenges we still face. Family Folklore Essay? We have what we need to do so. We have everything we need to meet those challenges. After all, we remain the wealthiest, most powerful, and most respected nation on earth. Our youth, our drive, our diversity and essays, openness, our boundless capacity for risk and reinvention means that the folklore, future should be ours.

But that potential will only be realized if our democracy works. Only if our politics better reflects the decency of our people. Only if all of on nelson mandela's life us, regardless of party affiliation or particular interests help restore the sense of common purpose that we so badly need right now. And that’s what I want to focus on family folklore, tonight, the state of our democracy. Understand democracy does not require uniformity. Essays Of Cannibals? Our founders argued, they quarreled, and eventually they compromised.

They expected us to do the same. But they knew that democracy does require a basic sense of solidarity. The idea that, for all our outward differences, we’re all in this together, that we rise or fall as one. There have been moments throughout our history that threatened that solidarity. Family Essay? And the beginning of this century has been one of in life is to become a teacher essay those times. A shrinking world, growing inequality, demographic change, and the specter of folklore terrorism. These forces haven’t just tested our security and our prosperity, but are testing our democracy as well. And how we meet these challenges to master web 2.0, our democracy will determine our ability to educate our kids and create good jobs and protect our homeland.

In other words, it will determine our future. To begin with, our democracy won’t work without a sense that everyone has economic opportunity. And the good news is that today the essay, economy is my ambition is to a teacher essay growing again. Wages, incomes, home values and retirement accounts are all rising again. Poverty is folklore essay falling again.

The wealthy are paying a fair share of taxes. Even as the stock market shatters records, the unemployment rate is near a 10-year low. The uninsured rate has never, ever been lower. Interactive Feature | The Obama Era Articles in this series will explore the sweeping change that President Obama has brought to scholar essays, the nation, and how the presidency has changed him. Health care costs are rising at the slowest rate in folklore essay, 50 years. And I’ve said, and I mean it, anyone can put together a plan that is demonstrably better than the improvements we’ve made to our health care system, that covers as many people at less cost, I will publicly support it. Because that, after all, is why we serve. Not to score points or take credit. But to essays of cannibals, make people’s lives better. But, for all the real progress that we’ve made, we know it’s not enough.

Our economy doesn’t work as well or grow as fast when a few prosper at the expense of a growing middle class, and ladders for folks who want to get into the middle class. That’s the economic argument. But stark inequality is also corrosive to family, our democratic idea. Essays Montaigne? While the family folklore essay, top 1 percent has amassed a bigger share of wealth and income, too many of our families in inner cities and in rural counties have been left behind. The laid off factory worker, the waitress or health care worker who’s just barely getting by and struggling to pay the bills. Thesis? Convinced that the game is fixed against them. That their government only serves the interest of the powerful. That’s a recipe for more cynicism and polarization in our politics. Now there’re no quick fixes to this long-term trend. I agree, our trade should be fair and not just free.

But the next wave of economic dislocations won’t come from overseas. It will come from the relentless pace of automation that makes a lot of good middle class jobs obsolete. And so we’re going to have to forge a new social compact to guarantee all our kids the education they need. To give workers the power. . to unionize for better wages. To update the social safety net to reflect the way we live now. And make more reforms to the tax code so corporations and the individuals who reap the folklore essay, most from this new economy don’t avoid their obligations to the country that’s made their very success possible. We can argue about how to best achieve these goals. Mandela's? But we can’t be complacent about the goals themselves.

For if we don’t create opportunity for all people, the disaffection and division that has stalled our progress will only sharpen in years to come. There’s a second threat to our democracy. And this one is as old as our nation itself. After my election there was talk of a post-racial America. Folklore? And such a vision, however well intended, was never realistic. Race remains a potent. . and often divisive force in our society. Now I’ve lived long enough to essays on accountability, know that race relations are better than they were 10 or 20 or 30 years ago, no matter what some folks say. You can see it not just in statistics. You see it in the attitudes of family folklore young Americans across the political spectrum. What? But we’re not where we need to be.

And all of us have more work to do. If every economic issue is framed as a struggle between a hardworking white middle class and an undeserving minority, then workers of all shades are going to family, be left fighting for scraps while the wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves. If we’re unwilling to is to a teacher essay, invest in family essay, the children of immigrants, just because they don’t look like us, we will diminish the prospects of our own children — because those brown kids will represent a larger and larger share of America’s workforce. And we have shown that our economy doesn’t have to be a zero-sum game. Last year, incomes rose for all races, all age groups, for men and for women. So if we’re going to military essays, be serious about race going forward, we need to uphold laws against discrimination — in hiring, and in folklore, housing, and in education, and in the criminal justice system. That is what our Constitution and highest ideals require.

But laws alone won’t be enough. Military? Hearts must change. It won’t change overnight. Social attitudes oftentimes take generations to change. Family? But if our democracy is to work the way it should in what my narrative about, this increasingly diverse nation, then each one of us need to try to family folklore essay, heed the advice of a great character in American fiction, Atticus Finch, who said “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view, until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.” For blacks and other minority groups, that means tying our own very real struggles for justice to the challenges that a lot of essays mandela's people in this country face. Family Essay? Not only the web 2.0, refugee or the immigrant or the rural poor or the transgender American, but also the folklore, middle-aged white guy who from the outside may seem like he’s got all the advantages, but has seen his world upended by economic, and cultural, and technological change. We have to pay attention and listen.

For white Americans, it means acknowledging that the effects of slavery and essays on nelson life, Jim Crow didn’t suddenly vanish in family folklore essay, the ’60s; that when minority groups voice discontent, they’re not just engaging in reverse racism or practicing political correctness; when they wage peaceful protest, they’re not demanding special treatment, but the equal treatment that our founders promised. For native-born Americans, it means reminding ourselves that the stereotypes about immigrants today were said, almost word for word, about the Irish, and Italians, and Poles, who it was said were going to in life is to become a teacher, destroy the family folklore, fundamental character of master thesis web 2.0 America. And as it turned out, America wasn’t weakened by the presence of these newcomers; these newcomers embraced this nation’s creed, and this nation was strengthened. So regardless of the station we occupy; we all have to try harder; we all have to folklore, start with the premise that each of our fellow citizens loves this country just as much as we do; that they value hard work and family just like we do; that their children are just as curious and hopeful and worthy of love as our own. And that’s not easy to do. For too many of us it’s become safer to retreat into our own bubbles, whether in my ambition become a teacher, our neighborhoods, or on college campuses, or places of worship, or especially our social media feeds, surrounded by people who look like us and share the same political outlook and family folklore, never challenge our assumptions. In the rise of naked partisanship and increasing economic and regional stratification, the splintering of our media into a channel for every taste, all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable.

And increasingly we become so secure in our bubbles that we start accepting only information, whether it’s true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on the evidence that is out there. And this trend represents a third threat to our democracy. Look, politics is a battle of us presidential scholar essays ideas. Family Folklore? That’s how our democracy was designed. Of Cannibals? In the course of a healthy debate, we prioritize different goals, and the different means of family folklore reaching them. But without some common baseline of facts, without a willingness to admit new information and concede that your opponent might be making a fair point, and what should my narrative about, that science and reason matter, then we’re going to keep talking past each other. And we’ll make common ground and compromise impossible.

And isn’t that part of what so often makes politics dispiriting? How can elected officials rage about deficits when we propose to spend money on pre-school for family, kids, but not when we’re cutting taxes for of cannibals montaigne, corporations? How do we excuse ethical lapses in our own party, but pounce when the other party does the essay, same thing? It’s not just dishonest, it’s selective sorting of the facts. It’s self-defeating because, as my mom used to tell me, reality has a way of thesis catching up with you.

Take the folklore, challenge of climate change. In just eight years we’ve halved our dependence on foreign oil, we’ve doubled our renewable energy, we’ve led the world to an agreement that (at) the promise to save this planet. But without bolder action, our children won’t have time to debate the existence of climate change. They’ll be busy dealing with its effects. What I Write My Narrative? More environmental disasters, more economic disruptions, waves of climate refugees seeking sanctuary.

Now we can and folklore essay, should argue about the best approach to solve the problem. But to simply deny the problem not only betrays future generations, it betrays the essential spirit of this country, the essential spirit of become a teacher innovation and practical problem-solving that guided our founders. It is that spirit — it is that spirit born of the enlightenment that made us an economic powerhouse. The spirit that took flight at Kitty Hawk and Cape Canaveral, the spirit that cures disease and put a computer in every pocket, it’s that spirit. A faith in reason and folklore, enterprise, and the primacy of right over might, that allowed us to resist the lure of fascism and of cannibals, tyranny during the Great Depression, that allowed us to build a post-World War II order with other democracies. An order based not just on military power or national affiliations, but built on principles, the rule of law, human rights, freedom of religion and folklore essay, speech and assembly and an independent press. That order is military essays on accountability now being challenged. First by violent fanatics who claim to family, speak for Islam. More recently by autocrats in foreign capitals who seek free markets in open democracies and my ambition become essay, civil society itself as a threat to their power.

The peril each poses to folklore, our democracy is more far reaching than a car bomb or a missile. They represent the fear of change. The fear of people who look or speak or pray differently. A contempt for the rule of law that holds leaders accountable. An intolerance of dissent and free thought. A belief that the sword or the gun or the bomb or the propaganda machine is the ultimate arbiter of what’s true and what’s right. Because of the extraordinary courage of our men and women in what should i write my narrative essay, uniform. Because of our intelligence officers and folklore, law enforcement and diplomats who support our troops. . no foreign terrorist organization has successfully planned and executed an attack on our homeland these past eight years. . My Ambition Is To? Boston and Orlando and family essay, San Bernardino and web 2.0, Fort Hood remind us of how dangerous radicalization can be, our law enforcement agencies are more effective and vigilant than ever. We have taken out tens of thousands of folklore terrorists, including Bin Laden.

The global coalition we’re leading against ISIL has taken out their leaders and taken away about in life is to become a teacher half their territory. ISIL will be destroyed. And no one who threatens America will ever be safe. And all who serve or have served — it has been the honor of my lifetime to family, be your commander-in-chief. And we all owe you a deep debt of should i write my narrative gratitude. But, protecting our way of life, that’s not just the family essay, job of our military. Democracy can buckle when it gives into essays fear. Family Essay? So just as we as citizens must remain vigilant against on nelson mandela's external aggression, we must guard against a weakening of the family folklore essay, values that make us who we are. And that’s why for military on accountability, the past eight years I’ve worked to put the fight against terrorism on a firmer legal footing. That’s why we’ve ended torture, worked to close Gitmo, reformed our laws governing surveillance to protect privacy and civil liberties.

That’s why I reject discrimination against Muslim Americans. . who are just as patriotic as we are. That’s why we cannot withdraw. That’s why we cannot withdraw from big global fights to expand democracy and human rights and women’s rights and LGBT rights. No matter how imperfect our efforts, no matter how expedient ignoring such values may seem, that’s part of defending America. For the fight against extremism and intolerance and family, sectarianism and chauvinism are of a piece with the fight against authoritarianism and nationalist aggression. If the scope of freedom and my ambition essay, respect for family, the rule of law shrinks around the master, world, the likelihood of essay war within and between nations increases, and our own freedoms will eventually be threatened. So let’s be vigilant, but not afraid. What I Write My Narrative? ISIL will try to kill innocent people. But they cannot defeat America unless we betray our Constitution and our principles in the fight.

Rivals like Russia or China cannot match our influence around the world — unless we give up what we stand for, and turn ourselves into just another big country that bullies smaller neighbors. Which brings me to my final point — our democracy is threatened whenever we take it for folklore essay, granted. All of us, regardless of montaigne party, should be throwing ourselves into the task of rebuilding our democratic institutions. When voting rates in America are some of the lowest among advanced democracies, we should be making it easier, not harder, to vote. When trust in our institutions is low, we should reduce the corrosive influence of money in family essay, our politics, and insist on essays of cannibals montaigne, the principles of transparency and ethics in public service.

When Congress is folklore essay dysfunctional, we should draw our districts to should i write essay, encourage politicians to cater to common sense and not rigid extremes. But remember, none of this happens on its own. All of folklore this depends on military essays on accountability, our participation; on each of us accepting the responsibility of citizenship, regardless of which way the pendulum of essay power happens to be swinging. Our Constitution is a remarkable, beautiful gift. Essays On Nelson? But it’s really just a piece of parchment. Essay? It has no power on its own.

We, the in life a teacher, people, give it power. We, the people, give it meaning — with our participation, and with the choices that we make and the alliances that we forge. Whether or not we stand up for our freedoms. Whether or not we respect and enforce the rule of law, that’s up to us. America is no fragile thing.

But the gains of essay our long journey to freedom are not assured. In his own farewell address, George Washington wrote that self-government is the underpinning of our safety, prosperity, and liberty, but “from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken. to weaken in your minds the conviction of my ambition essay this truth.” And so we have to preserve this truth with “jealous anxiety;” that we should reject “the first dawning of every attempt to alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties” that make us one. America, we weaken those ties when we allow our political dialogue to become so corrosive that people of good character aren’t even willing to enter into public service. Folklore? So coarse with rancor that Americans with whom we disagree are seen, not just as misguided, but as malevolent.

We weaken those ties when we define some of us presidential scholar us as more American than others. When we write off the essay, whole system as inevitably corrupt. And when we sit back and blame the leaders we elect without examining our own role in electing them. It falls to each of military essays us to be those anxious, jealous guardians of our democracy. Embrace the joyous task we have been given to folklore, continually try to improve this great nation of ours because, for all our outward differences, we in fact all share the same proud type, the most important office in a democracy, citizen. Citizen. So, you see, that’s what our democracy demands. It needs you. Not just when there’s an election, not just when you own narrow interest is at stake, but over essays the full span of folklore essay a lifetime. If you’re tired of arguing with strangers on my ambition is to essay, the Internet, try talking with one of them in real life.

If something needs fixing, then lace up your shoes and folklore essay, do some organizing. If you’re disappointed by your elected officials, grab a clip board, get some signatures, and run for office yourself. Show up, dive in, stay at it. Sometimes you’ll win, sometimes you’ll lose. Presuming a reservoir in goodness, that can be a risk. And there will be times when the process will disappoint you. But for my ambition become, those of us fortunate enough to family essay, have been part of this one and to see it up close, let me tell you, it can energize and inspire. And more often than not, your faith in mandela's life, America and in Americans will be confirmed. Mine sure has been.

Over the course of these eight years, I’ve seen the hopeful faces of young graduates and essay, our newest military officers. Military Essays? I have mourned with grieving families searching for answers, and found grace in a Charleston church. I’ve seen our scientists help a paralyzed man regain his sense of touch. I’ve seen Wounded Warriors who at points were given up for dead walk again. I’ve seen our doctors and volunteers rebuild after earthquakes and essay, stop pandemics in their tracks.

I’ve seen the youngest of children remind us through their actions and through their generosity of our obligations to care for refugees or work for peace and, above all, to look out for each other. Master Thesis Web 2.0? So that faith that I placed all those years ago, not far from here, in the power of ordinary Americans to bring about folklore change, that faith has been rewarded in ways I could not have possibly imagined. And I hope your faith has too. Some of you here tonight or watching at of cannibals montaigne, home, you were there with us in 2004 and 2008, 2012. Maybe you still can’t believe we pulled this whole thing off. Let me tell you, you’re not the only ones. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson of the South Side. . for the past 25 years you have not only been my wife and essay, mother of my children, you have been my best friend. You took on a role you didn’t ask for. What Should I Write My Narrative About? And you made it your own with grace and family folklore essay, with grit and with style, and good humor. You made the essays, White House a place that belongs to everybody.

And a new generation sets its sights higher because it has you as a role model. You have made me proud, and you have made the family, country proud. Malia and Sasha. . under the strangest of circumstances you have become two amazing young women. You are smart and you are beautiful.

But more importantly, you are kind and you are thoughtful and you are full of passion. . you wore the burden of years in the spotlight so easily. Us Presidential? Of all that I have done in my life, I am most proud to family, be your dad. . the scrappy kid from Scranton. . who became Delaware’s favorite son. My Ambition Become Essay? You were the first decision I made as a nominee, and it was the best. Not just because you have been a great vice president, but because in the bargain I gained a brother. And we love you and Jill like family.

And your friendship has been one of the great joys of our lives. To my remarkable staff, for eight years, and for some of essay you a whole lot more, I have drawn from is to a teacher your energy. And every day I try to reflect back what you displayed. Folklore Essay? Heart and character. And idealism. I’ve watched you grow up, get married, have kids, start incredible new journeys of your own. Even when times got tough and frustrating, you never let Washington get the better of you. You guarded against essays montaigne cynicism. Essay? And the i write my narrative essay about, only thing that makes me prouder than all the good that we’ve done is the thought of all the amazing things that you are going to family folklore essay, achieve from essays mandela's life here. And to all of you out folklore there — every organizer who moved to should essay, an unfamiliar town, every kind family who welcomed them in, every volunteer who knocked on doors, every young person who cast a ballot for the first time, every American who lived and family, breathed the hard work of change — you are the essays, best supporters and organizers anybody could ever hope for, and I will forever be grateful.

Because you did change the world. And that’s why I leave this stage tonight even more optimistic about this country than when we started. Because I know our work has not only helped so many Americans; it has inspired so many Americans — especially so many young people out there — to folklore, believe that you can make a difference; to hitch your wagon to something bigger than yourselves. Let me tell you, this generation coming up — unselfish, altruistic, creative, patriotic — I’ve seen you in what i write, every corner of the country. Folklore Essay? You believe in a fair, and just, and inclusive America; you know that constant change has been America’s hallmark, that it’s not something to fear but something to embrace, you are willing to on nelson life, carry this hard work of democracy forward. You’ll soon outnumber any of us, and I believe as a result the future is in good hands. My fellow Americans, it has been the honor of my life to serve you.

I won’t stop; in fact, I will be right there with you, as a citizen, for all my remaining days. But for family folklore essay, now, whether you are young or whether you’re young at heart, I do have one final ask of you as your president — the essays, same thing I asked when you took a chance on me eight years ago. I am asking you to believe. Family Essay? Not in my ability to scholar, bring about change — but in yours. I am asking you to hold fast to that faith written into our founding documents; that idea whispered by slaves and abolitionists; that spirit sung by essay immigrants and homesteaders and those who marched for us presidential scholar, justice; that creed reaffirmed by those who planted flags from essay foreign battlefields to the surface of the moon; a creed at the core of every American whose story is not yet written:

Thank you. God bless you. And may God continue to bless the United States of America. Thank you. Follow The New York Times’s politics and thesis web 2.0, Washington coverage on family folklore, Facebook and Twitter, and sign up for the First Draft politics newsletter. More In PoliticsMore In U.S. Politics. Democrats, Seeking to Disavow Weinstein, Plan to Give His Donations to should my narrative essay about, Charity.

Senators Patrick J. Leahy, Richard Blumenthal, Martin Heinrich and Elizabeth Warren each said on Thursday they would transfer money they had received from Mr. Weinstein to charity. Even if he stays, the family folklore, secretary of state has become a wounded figure, his credibility diminished by of cannibals montaigne his rift with the president. After resisting any gun legislation for decades, Republican lawmakers say they will examine the kits used in Las Vegas to turn rifles into rapid-firing weapons.

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cmmi resume Welcome to our brutally honest, totally hip CMMIFAQ. We're probably going to make as many enemies as friends with this FAQ, but hey, we expect it to be worth it. :-) We also did a bit of research and found it pretty hard (if not impossible) to family essay find this kind of information anywhere else on become the web. So anyone who has a problem with our posting this information is probably the kind of person who wants you to pay to get it out of them before you have enough information to even make a good decision. Essay! But we digress. We do that a lot. This site was designed to provide help with CMMI for people who are researching, trying to get to the truth about CMMI, or just looking for answers to basic, frequently asked questions about of cannibals CMMI and family the process of mandela's, having an family folklore appraisal for getting a level rating (or CMMI certification as some people (inaccurately) prefer to military say). The information on this site has also been demonstrated to provide answers and new insights to people who are already (or thought they were) very familiar with CMMI and the appraisal. Feedback has indicated that there is more than a fair amount of incomplete and actual incorrect information being put forth by family folklore, supposed experts in CMMI.

Your feedback is therefore very important to us. If you have any suggestions for other questions, or especially corrections, please don't hesitate to what should i write my narrative essay about send them to us. This is a work-in-progress, not all questions have been answered yet -- simply a matter of time to write them, not that we don't know the answers -- but we didn't want to keep you waiting, so we're starting with that we have. For your own self-study, and for additional information, the source material for many of the answers on CMMI come from the CMMI Institute. Family Essay! They're not hiding anything; it's all there. We've broken up the FAQs into the following sections (there will be much cross-over, as can be expected): CMMI, Agile, Kanban, Lean, LifeCycles and other Process Concepts FAQs. SEI / CMMI Institute Transition Out of SEI FAQs.

Specific Model Content FAQs. A: CMMI stands for should essay Capability Maturity Model Integration. It's the essay, integration of several other CMMs (Capability Maturity Models). By integrating these other CMMs, it also becomes an integration of the process areas and practices within the model in ways that previous incarnations of the model(s) didn't achieve. The CMMI is a framework for business process improvement. Master Thesis Web 2.0! In other words, it is a model for building process improvement systems. Family Essay! In the same way that models are used to essays of cannibals guide thinking and analysis on how to essay build other things (algorithms, buildings, molecules), CMMI is used to build process improvement systems.

There are currently three flavors of CMMI called constellations. The most famous one is the about, CMMI for Development -- i.e., DEV . It has been around (in one version or another) for roughly 10 years and folklore essay has been the subject of essays mandela's life, much energy for over 20 years when including its CMM ancestors. More recently, two other constellations have been created: CMMI for Acquisition -- i.e., ACQ , and CMMI for family folklore Services -- i.e., SVC . All constellations share many things, but fundamentally, they are all nothing more than frameworks for assembling process improvement systems. Each constellation has content that targets improvements in particular areas, tuned to organizations whose primary work effort either: Develops products and complex services, and/or Acquires goods and services from others, and/or Provides/ delivers services.

NONE of the constellations actually contain processes themselves. None of on nelson mandela's, them alone can be used to actually develop products, acquire goods or fulfill services. The assumption with all CMMIs is that the organization has its own standards, processes and procedures by family folklore, which they actually get things done. The content of what should my narrative essay, CMMIs are to improve upon the performance of those standards, processes and procedures -- not to define them. Having said that, it should be noted that there will (hopefully) be overlaps between what any given organization already does and content of CMMIs. Family Folklore! This overlap should not be misinterpreted as a sign that CMMI content *is*, in fact, process content. It can't be over-emphasized, CMMIs, while chock-full-o examples and explanations, do not contain how to anything other than building improvement systems . The overlap is easy to explain: activities that help improve a process can also be activities to effectively perform a process, and, not every organization performs even the basic activities necessary to perform the process area well. So, to one organization, what seems trivial and commonplace, to another is salvation from despair. Another way to on accountability look at CMMIs are that they focus on family folklore essay the business processes of developing engineered solutions (DEV), acquiring goods and services (ACQ) and delivering services (SVC).

To date, CMMI has most widely applied in should my narrative about, software and systems engineering organizations. Folklore! Now, with the expansion of the constellations, where it is applied is a significantly distinct matter from being anything even remotely akin to a standard or certification mechanism for the engineering, methods, technologies, or accreditation necessary to build stuff, buy stuff or do stuff, . If an us presidential scholar organization chose to family essay do so, CMMI could be applied in essays of cannibals montaigne, the construction or even media production industries. (Exactly, how would be an *entirely* different discussion!) Before we get too off-track. Family Essay! CMMI is meant to mandela's help organizations improve their performance of and capability to consistently and family folklore predictably deliver the products, services, and sourced goods their customers want, when they want them and at a price they're willing to pay. Military On Accountability! From a purely inwardly-facing perspective, CMMI helps companies improve operational performance by lowering the cost of production, delivery, and sourcing. Without some insight into and control over their internal business processes, how else can a company know how well they're doing before it's too late to do anything about it? And if/ when they wait until the end of a project or work package to see how close/far they were to their promises/expectations, without some idea of what their processes are and how they work, how else could a company ever make whatever changes or improvements they'd want/need to make in folklore, order to do better next time? CMMI provides the models from which to pursue these sorts of insights and essays activities for family improvement. On Nelson Mandela's Life! It's a place to start, not a final destination.

CMMI can't tell an organization what is or isn't important to them. CMMI, however, can provide a path for an organization to achieve its performance goals. Furthermore, CMMI is just a model, it's not reality. Like any other model, CMMI reflects one version of reality, and like most models, it's rather idealistic and family folklore essay unrealistic -- at least in some ways. When understood as *just* a model, people implementing CMMI have a much higher chance of implementing something of lasting value. As a model, what CMMI lacks is context. Specifically, the should i write essay about, context of the family folklore essay, organization in which it will be implemented for process improvement.

Together with the organization's context, CMMI can be applied to create a process improvement solution appropriate to the context of each unique organization. Putting it all together: CMMI is a model for building process improvement systems from which (astute) organizations will abstract and create process improvement solutions that fit their unique environment to essays montaigne help them improve their operational performance. At the risk of family essay, seeming self-serving, the following addresses the question of what CMMI is: A: We should start the answer to this question with a quick sentence about what CMMI itself *is*. CMMI is about improving performance through improving operational processes. In particular, it's improving processes associated with managing how organizations develop or acquire solution-based wares and military essays on accountability define and deliver their services. Family Essay! So we should ask you a question before we answer yours: Do you feel that you ought to be looking at improving your processes? What business performance improvements would you like to of cannibals montaigne see from your operations?

SO, is CMMI right for you? Obviously this depends on what you're trying to accomplish. Sometimes it's best to divide and conquer. So we'll divide the world into two groups: those who develop wares and provide services for US Federal agencies (or their prime contractors) and those who don't. Those of you in the former group will probably come across CMMI in the form of a pre-qualifier in some RFP.

As such, you're probably looking at the CMMI as a necessary evil regardless of whether or not you feel your processes need to be addressed in any way. Folklore! If you're in this group, there aren't many loop-holes. One strong case for why your company might not need to mess with CMMI would be if you are selling a product of your own specification. Something that might be called shrink-wrapped or even COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf). While looking at CMMI for military on accountability process improvement wouldn't be a bad idea, the point is that unless you are developing wares from scratch to a government (or a Prime's) specification, you ought to be able to elude having someone else require or expect you to pursue CMMI practices when you otherwise might not do so.

A couple of exceptions to this rule of thumb would be (a) if you are entering into the world of custom wares for family folklore essay the Feds, even though you currently aren't in it, and/or (b) if the extent to which your product might need modifications or out-of-spec maintenance for it to be bought/used by the government. Governments have an all-too-regular habit of buying a product as is functionally, and then realizing that what they need kinda only looks like the original product but is really different. Knowing this, many agencies and prime contractors are using the CMMI's appraisal method (called SCAMPI) as part of montaigne, their due diligence before wedding themselves to a product or vendor. If you're in the latter group, (remember. those who don't sell to the Feds or their Primes) then the question is really this, what's not working for you with your current way of family folklore essay, running your operation? You'll need to get crystal clear about that. Certain things CMMI can't really help you with such as marketing and communications. OK, it could, but if managing your customers and marketing are your biggest challenges, you've got other fish to fry and frying them with CMMI is a really long way around to get them into the pan. Essays! Don't get us wrong, there are aspects of CMMI that can be applied to anything related to family essay *how* you do business. But, if you are worrying about where the next meal is coming from, you might be hungry for a while before the ROI from on nelson life CMMI will bring home the folklore, bacon. It usually takes a number of months. Having said that.

If you're finding that. customer acquisition, satisfaction, or retention, and/or project success, profitability, predictability, or timeliness, and/or employee acquisition, satisfaction, or retention, and/or service level accuracy, predictability, cycle or lead time. are tied to a certain level of uncertainty, inconsistency, and/or lack of insight into or control over work activities, then you could do worse than investigating CMMI for what it offers in rectifying these concerns. NOTE: This answer assumes you know a thing or two about CMMI, so we won't be explaining some terms you'll find answered elsewhere in military on accountability, this FAQ. How many processes are there in CMMI? A: NONE. Zero. Zip. Essay! Nada. In Life A Teacher! Rien. Nil.

Bupkis. Big ol' goose-egg. There's not a single process in family folklore essay, all of CMMI. They're called Process Areas (PAs) in CMMI, and we're not being obtuse or overly pedantic about semantics. It's an important distinction to essays life understand between processes and Process Areas (PAs). So, there are *no* processes in essay, CMMI. No processes, no procedures, no work instructions, nothing. This is often very confusing to essays on nelson life CMMI newcomers. You see, there are many practices in CMMI that *are* part of typical work practices. Sometimes they are almost exactly what a given project, work effort, service group or organization might do, but sometimes the practices in CMMI sound the same as likely typical practices in name only and folklore essay the similarity ends there.

Despite the similar names used in scholar essays, typical work practices and in family essay, CMMI, they are *not* to be assumed to be referring to one-in-the-same activities. That alone is on nelson, enough to cause endless hours, days, or months of confusion. What CMMI practices are, are practices that improve existing work practices, but do not *define* what those work practices must be for any given activity or organization. The sad reality is so many organizations haven't taken the family folklore essay, time to look at web 2.0, and understand the essay, present state of their actual work practices, so as a result not only do they not know everything they would need to know to merely run their operation, they then look to CMMI as a means of defining their own practices! As one might guess, this approach often rapidly leads to failure and disillusionment. How you run your operation would undoubtedly include practices that may happen at any point and time in master, an effort and during the folklore essay, course of doing the work. Irrespective of where these activities take place in reality, the CMMI PAs are collections of practices to improve those activities. CMMI practices are not to be interpreted as being necessarily in a sequence or to be intrinsically distinct from existing activities or from what i write essay one CMMI practices to another. Family! Simply, CMMI practices (or alternatives to them) are the activities collectively performed to achieve improvement goals . Goals, we might add, that ought to be tied to essays mandela's business objectives more substantial than simply achieving a rating. There's so much more to say here, but it would be a site unto itself to do so.

Besides, we never answered the question. . in the current version of CMMI for DEVELOPMENT (v1.3, released October 2010) there are 22 Process Areas . (There were 25 in v1.1, and also 22 in v1.2.) CMMI v1.3 can actually now refer to three different flavors of essay, CMMI, called constellations. CMMI for Development is one constellation of PAs. There are two other constellations, one for improving services , and one for acquisition . Thesis Web 2.0! Each constellation has particular practices meant to improve those particular uses. Family Essay! CMMI for Acquisition and military on accountability CMMI for Services are now all at family, v1.3. While much of the focus of this list is on CMMI for Development, we're updating it slowly but surely to at least address CMMI for Services, too. Meanwhile, we'll just point out that the three constellations share 16 core process areas; CMMI for Development and for scholar Services share the Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) process area.

The CMMI for Acquisition has a total of 21 PAs, and Services has a total of 24 PAs. Folklore Essay! The delta between core, core + shared, and total are those PAs specific to the constellation. More on essays on nelson mandela's that later. We would like to thank our friend, Saif, for pointing out that our original answer was not nearly doing justice to those in need of folklore essay, help. Us Presidential Scholar Essays! The update to this answer was a result of his keen observation. Thanks Saif! The Process Areas of CMMI are listed below. Family! They were taken directly from their respective SEI/CMMI Institute publications. We first list the core process areas, also called the CMMI Model Foundation or, CMF. Life! Then we list the process area shared by two of the constellations, DEV and folklore essay SVC, then we list the on accountability, process areas unique to each of the three constellations, in order of chronological appearance: DEV, ACQ, then SVC. All the folklore essay, PAs are listed in alphabetical order by acronym, and for those who are interested in mandela's, Maturity Levels, we include in brackets '[]' which Maturity Level each PA is part of.

We're also listing the family folklore, purpose statement of each one. We should also note that in process area names, purpose statements, and throughout the military essays, text, in CMMI for Services , the family folklore, notion of what, project has largely been replaced with the notion (and use of the essay, term) work. Master Web 2.0! For example, in CMMI for Services , Project Planning becomes Work Planning , and so forth. The rationale for that is the result of months of debate over the relevance and subsequent confusion over the concept of a project in family folklore, the context of service work. While the in life is to essay, concept of essay, a project *is* appropriate for many types of services , it is quite inappropriate for is to essay most services, and, substituting the notion (and use of the term) work for family project has effectively zero negative consequences in a service context. This may raise the question of why not merely replace work for project in all three constellations? In the attitude of this CMMIFAQ, our flippant answer would be something like, let's take our victories where we can get them and walk away quietly, but a more accurate/appropriate answer would be that product development and acquisition events are generally more discrete entities than services, and the vast majority of product development and acquisition events are, in fact, uniquely identified by the notion of a project.

Furthermore, there is nothing in the models that prevent users from restricting the interpretation of project or work. It's just that re-framing project and work in their respective contexts made sense in become essay, a broader effort to reduce sources of confusion. Process Areas of folklore essay, CMMI Model Foundation (CMF) -- Common to All CMMI Constellations. The purpose of Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) is to identify causes of defects and other problems and take action to of cannibals montaigne prevent them from family essay occurring in the future. Configuration Management, [ML 2] The purpose of Configuration Management (CM) is to establish and essays maintain the integrity of work products using configuration identification, configuration control, configuration status accounting, and configuration audits. Decision Analysis Resolution, [ML 3] The purpose of essay, Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) is to analyze possible decisions using a formal evaluation process that evaluates identified alternatives against established criteria.

Integrated Project Management, [ML 3] The purpose of should my narrative about, Integrated Project Management (IPM) is to establish and manage the project and the involvement of the relevant stakeholders according to an integrated and defined process that is tailored from the essay, organization's set of standard processes. Measurement Analysis, [ML 2] The purpose of Measurement and Analysis (MA) is to develop and sustain a measurement capability that is used to what should about support management information needs. Organizational Process Definition, [ML 3]

The purpose of family, Organizational Process Definition (OPD) is to establish and maintain a usable set of organizational process assets and work environment standards. Organizational Process Focus, [ML 3] The purpose of master thesis, Organizational Process Focus (OPF) is to family essay plan, implement, and deploy organizational process improvements based on a thorough understanding of the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization's processes and military on accountability process assets. Organizational Performance Management, [ML5] The purpose of Organizational Performance Management (OPM) is to proactively manage the organization's performance to meet its business objectives. Essay! Organizational Process Performance, [ML 4]

The purpose of on nelson mandela's life, Organizational Process Performance (OPP) is to essay establish and maintain a quantitative understanding of the performance of the organization's set of standard processes in support of quality and process-performance objectives, and to provide the process performance data, baselines, and models to quantitatively manage the organization's projects. Essays! Organizational Training, [ML 3] The purpose of Organizational Training (OT) is to develop the skills and knowledge of people so they can perform their roles effectively and efficiently. Project Monitoring and Control, [ML 2] The purpose of project Monitoring and Control (PMC) is to provide an understanding of the ongoing work so that appropriate corrective actions can be taken when performance deviates significantly from the plan. Project Planning, [ML 2] The purpose of Project Planning (PP) is to establish and maintain plans that define project activities. Process and Product Quality Assurance, [ML 2]

The purpose of Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA) is to provide staff and management with objective insight into processes and associated work products. Quantitative Project Management, [ML 4] The purpose of Quantitative Project Management (QPM) is to family folklore essay quantitatively manage the project's defined process to military essays on accountability achieve the project's established quality and process-performance objectives. Requirements Management, [ML 2] The purpose of Requirements Management (REQM) is to manage requirements of the essay, products and product components and to identify inconsistencies between those requirements and the work plans and work products. Risk Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Risk Management (RSKM) is to identify potential problems before they occur so that risk-handling activities can be planned and in life invoked as needed across the life of the product or project to mitigate adverse impacts on achieving objectives.

Shared by CMMI for Development and CMMI for Services. The purpose of Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) is to manage the family folklore essay, acquisition of products from suppliers. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for is to Development. The purpose of Product Integration (PI) is to family folklore essay assemble the product from the product components, ensure that the product, as integrated, functions properly, and deliver the essays on nelson mandela's life, product. Requirements Development, [ML 3] The purpose of Requirements Development (RD) is to produce and analyze customer, product, and product component requirements. Technical Solution, [ML 3] The purpose of Technical Solution (TS) is to design, develop, and implement solutions to folklore essay requirements. What Should! Solutions, designs, and implementations encompass products, product components, and product-related lifecycle processes either singly or in family folklore, combination as appropriate.

Validation, [ML 3] The purpose of Validation (VAL) is to essays montaigne demonstrate that a product or product component fulfills its intended use when placed in its intended environment. Verification, [ML 3] The purpose of Verification (VER) is to family folklore ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for Acquisition.

The purpose of Agreement Management (AM) is to ensure that the supplier and the acquirer perform according to the terms of the supplier agreement. Acquisition Requirements Development, [ML 2] The purpose of thesis web 2.0, Acquisition Requirements Development (ARD) is to develop and analyze customer and family folklore essay contractual requirements. Acquisition Technical Management, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Technical Management (ATM) is to evaluate the supplier's technical solution and to manage selected interfaces of that solution.

Acquisition Validation, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Validation (AVAL) is to demonstrate that an acquired product or service fulfills its intended use when placed in on nelson mandela's life, its intended environment. Family Essay! Acquisition Verification, [ML 3] The purpose of Acquisition Verification (AVER) is to ensure that selected work products meet their specified requirements. Solicitation and Supplier Agreement Development, [ML 2] The purpose of Solicitation and Supplier Agreement Development (SSAD) is to prepare a solicitation package, select one or more suppliers to my ambition is to a teacher essay deliver the product or service, and establish and maintain the family essay, supplier agreement. Process Areas Unique to CMMI for Services. The purpose of Capacity and Availability Management (CAM) is to essays of cannibals ensure effective service system performance and ensure that resources are provided and used effectively to folklore essay support service requirements. Incident Resolution and Prevention, [ML 3] The purpose of essays, Incident Resolution and Prevention (IRP) is to ensure timely and effective resolution of family, service incidents and my ambition in life is to a teacher essay prevention of service incidents as appropriate.

Service Continuity, [ML 3] The purpose of Service Continuity (SCON) is to establish and maintain plans to ensure continuity of services during and following any significant disruption of family essay, normal operations. Service Delivery, [ML 2] The purpose of Service Delivery (SD) is to deliver services in accordance with service agreements. Service System Development * , [ML 3] The purpose of Service System Development (SSD) is to analyze, design, develop, integrate, verify, and validate service systems, including service system components, to satisfy existing or anticipated service agreements. * SSD is an Addition As such, it is at the organization's discretion whether to implement SSD, and, whether to include SSD in a SCAMPI appraisal. Service System Transition, [ML 3] The purpose of Service System Transition (SST) is to deploy new or significantly changed service system components while managing their effect on ongoing service delivery. Strategic Service Management, [ML 3]

The purpose of Strategic Service Management (STSM) is to establish and maintain standard services in concert with strategic needs and plans. How are the processes organized? A: This question will look at the organization of Process Areas as they are organized to one another. The next FAQ question addresses the elements of each Process Area. Process Areas are organized in two main ways, called Representations. Two questions down, we answer the next obvious question: What's the of cannibals, difference between Staged and Continuous? For now, just trust us when we say that this really doesn't matter except to a very few people and family folklore essay organizations who really geek out over this idea of pathways through an improvement journey. Military On Accountability! Ultimately, if you really only care about improving performance, representations don't matter one bit. What is each process made up of?

A: Each process area is folklore, made of two kinds of should my narrative essay about, goals, two kinds of practices, and a whole lot of informative material. The two goal types are: Specific Goals and family essay Generic Goals. What I Write My Narrative Essay About! Which then makes the two practices to also follow suit as: Specific Practices and family essay Generic Practices. Astute readers can probably guess that Specific Goals are made up of Specific Practices and should my narrative essay about Generic Goals are made up of Generic Practices. Every Process Area (PA) has at least one Specific Goal (SG), made up of at folklore essay, least two Specific Practices (SPs).

The SPs in any PA are unique to that PA, whereas, other than the name of the PA in each of the Generic Practices (GPs), the GPs and us presidential scholar Generic Goals (GGs) are identical in every PA. Hence, the term Generic. PAs all have anywhere from 1 to 3 Generic Goals -- depending on family essay which model representation (see the previous question) the organization chooses to of cannibals montaigne use, and, the family folklore essay, path they intend to be on to mature their process improvement capabilities. The informative material is very useful, and varies from PA to PA. Readers are well-advised to web 2.0 focus on the Goals and Practices because they are the required and expected components of CMMI when it comes time to be appraised. Again, if improving performance is important to essay you and appraisals are not something you care about, then these goal-practice relationships and on accountability normative/informative philosophies don't really matter at all. Read more about that here. If all you want is improvement, and appraisals are not necessarily important, then it doesn't really matter how the model is organized.

Use anything in it to make your operation perform better! How do the Maturity Levels relate to one another and how does one progress through them? A: We touch on this subject below but here is some additional thinking about the subject: Maturity Level 2 is very very basic. This is the family folklore essay, minimum that an organization could achieve by merely hiring professional, experienced project managers and allowing them to do their jobs. Thesis Web 2.0! These project managers would work directly with the family essay, organization's leaders and owners to help projects be successful and the organization to be profitable. They would routinely communicate with the leaders and make adjustments. Companies struggling to incorporate or demonstrate use of the practices in CMMI ML2 are likely to be widely inconsistent with when they deliver, the in life a teacher essay, quality of what they deliver and their profits are likely to be highly unpredictable. Such organizations frequently take on family essay more work than they can handle. Thesis! They then proceed to do a poor job of planning the level of effort and family folklore essay dependencies required to complete the work. When projects don't meet financial or customer expectations, companies who don't perform ML2 practices don't know where to begin to start to understand why and they typically turn to military essays specific people to try to figure out what went wrong.

Very often people (internally or customers) get blamed for the missed expectations rather than realizing that the problems really started with their own lack of situational awareness. Family Folklore! ML2 does not guarantee project success (no ML does), but it increases awareness of in life is to become a teacher essay, what's going on, good or bad. WE often wonder how companies who fail to incorporate ML2 practices into their work even stay in business! process management, the technical/operational work of delivery (development or services, etc.), and family organizational change and my ambition in life become essay development. to work with the PM (from ML2) would naturally perform the practices found in ML3. The reason to add such people is to: facilitate communication and coordination throughout the organization and to learn and share observations from the successes and failures of other projects, establish performance norms for how to do the folklore essay, materially core work of the organization, and should i write my narrative essay about put in place the folklore essay, mechanisms for continuous improvement, learning, strategic growth, and i write essay decision-making. Furthermore, you would have the family folklore, PM involved in on nelson life, ensuring the time and effort required to look across the organization is not used-up by the projects.

These additional experts would work with the PM to help them make use of the most effective approaches to family essay meeting their projects' needs. While projects often don't provide useful performance data until near the end of the work, these new experts would help the organization's leaders understand how well the organization is performing from the inside even while projects are in the middle of execution. Is To Become A Teacher! ML3 organizations use data and metrics to family folklore essay help understand their internal costs and effectiveness. Of Cannibals! They are also typically better than ML2 organizations at asking themselves whether or not their processes are good, not just whether their processes are followed. What's the difference between Staged and Continuous? A: It's just different ways of looking at the same basic objects. The main difference is folklore, simply how the thesis, model is organized around the path towards process improvement that an organization can take.

That probably sounds meaningless, so let's get into a little bit about what that really means. The SEI, based on folklore essay the original idea behind the CMM for Software, promoted the notion that there are more fundamental and more advanced (key)* process areas that organizations should endeavor to get good at on the way to maturing their processes towards higher and higher capabilities. In this notion, certain process areas were staged together with the expectation that the of cannibals, groupings made sense as building blocks. Since the latter blocks depended on the prior blocks, the groupings resembled stair-steps, or levels. Family Essay! The idea then was that the first level didn't include any process areas, and that the what i write my narrative essay, first staging of (K)PAs* (the actual level 2) was a set of very fundamental practices that alone could make a significant difference in folklore essay, performance.

From there, the next staging of PAs, or level 3, could begin to exploit the foundational PAs and essays begin to affect process improvement changes from family folklore a more detailed technical and managerial perspective. Whereas, up through Level 3, where PAs had some degree of autonomy from one another, Levels 4 and 5 add Process Areas that look across all the other process areas as well as other activities not exclusively limited to process-area-related efforts. While Levels 4 and on nelson life 5 only add a total of four PAs, they are not in family folklore, the least trivial. They add the maturity and capability to manage processes by numbers rather than only by of cannibals montaigne, subjective feedback, and they add the ability to folklore essay optimize and continuously improve process across the board based on i write my narrative a statistically-backed quantitative understanding of effort and family folklore essay process performance. Then along comes a group of people who said, in effect, why not be able to improve any one process area to the point of i write essay about, optimization without having all process areas needing to be there? In fact, why not be able to focus on process areas with high value to the organization first and family folklore essay then go after other process areas, or maybe even ignore any process areas that we don't really need to improve? In the staged representation, which is the original Software CMM approach, this ability to mature a capability in on nelson, any one process area doesn't exist, so in CMMI, the idea of folklore, a Continuous representation was taken from a short-lived Systems Engineering CMM and implemented -- whereby an organization could choose to get really really good at any number of PAs without having to on nelson put forth the effort to implement low-value or unused PAs. This becomes especially meaningful to organizations that want to be able to family folklore essay benchmark themselves (or be formally rated) in only areas that matter to them. *In the original CMM for Software, the process areas were called Key Process Areas, or KPAs, and, there was no distinction between types of levels (see below), therefore there was only one type of level, and when someone said level 3 everyone understood. In CMMI, there are two level types which correspond to the two model representations.(see below) Saying, level in the context of should essay, CMMI is incomplete. However, for anyone reading this FAQ from the family folklore essay, beginning, this concept has not yet been introduced, and we didn't want to start adding terms that had not yet been defined.

What's the essays, difference between Maturity Level and Capability Level? A: They are different ways of rating your process areas. Let's start with the folklore, basics. A Maturity Level is my ambition in life become, what you can be appraised to family essay and rated as when the organization uses the web 2.0, Staged Representation of the family folklore, CMMI, and a Capability Level is what you can be appraised to and rated as when the military essays on accountability, organization uses the family, Continuous Representation of the CMMI. As for the details. A Maturity Level X means that an organization, when appraised, was found to be satisfying the goals required by process areas in that level (X). Those goals are a combination of specific and generic goals from a pre-defined set of Process Areas. My Ambition In Life Is To Become! Each Maturity Level has a particular set of PAs associated with it, and in turn, within those PAs have a delineated set of goals.

Maturity Level 2 (ML 2) in CMMI for Development requires the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 2 within them: Requirements Management (REQM) Project Planning (PP) Project Monitoring and Control (PMC) Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) Measurement and folklore essay Analysis (MA) Process and Product Quality Assurance (PPQA), and Configuration Management (CM) Maturity Level 3 (ML 3) in essays of cannibals montaigne, CMMI for Development requires the ML 2 PAs, plus the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Requirements Development (RD) Technical Solution (TS) Product Integration (PI) Verification (VER) Validation (VAL) Organizational Process Focus (OPF) Organizational Process Definition (OPD) Organizational Training (OT) Integrated Project Management (IPM) Risk Management (RSKM), and Decision Analysis and Resolution (DAR) Maturity Level 4 (ML 4) requires the ML 2 and 3 PAs, plus the following PAs be performed up to and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Organizational Process Performance (OPP) and family Quantitative Project Management (QPM) And finally, Maturity Level 5 (ML 5) requires the ML 2-4 PAs, plus the military, following PAs be performed up to essay and including Generic Goal 3 within all of them: Organizational Performance Management (OPM) and Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) For CMMI for Services and CMMI for Acquisition, the idea is the same, only some of the process areas are swapped out at master, both ML 2 and ML 3 for their respective disciplines. You can refer back to folklore this question to fill in the blanks on which PAs to swap in/out for CMMI for thesis Services and CMMI for Acquisition at ML2 and ML3. You'll notice that MLs 4 and 5 are the same across all three constellations.

Now, if you recall from the earlier FAQ, the Continuous representation is tied to the Generic Goals, and from above, Capability Levels are attained when using the Continuous representation. So with that, Capability Levels are then tied to family essay the Generic Goals. As we noted earlier, there are no collections of PAs in Capability Levels as there are in Maturity Levels or the staged representation. Therefore, it is far simpler to explain that a Capability Level is attained PA by PA. An organization can choose (or perhaps not by my narrative about, choice, but by family folklore essay, de facto performance) to be a different Capability Levels (CLs) for different PAs. For this reason, the results of a SCAMPI based on the Continuous Representation determine a Capability Profile that conveys each PA and the Capability Level of each one. Basically, the Capability Level of a PA is the highest Generic Goal at which the essays, organization is folklore, capable of operating. Since there is us presidential essays, actually 3 Generic Goals, 1-3, an organization can be found to be operating at a Capability Level of ZERO (CL 0), in which they aren't even achieving the essay, first Generic Goal which is us presidential scholar essays, simply to Achieve Specific Goals

Thus, the three Capability Levels are (in our own words): Capability Level 1: The organization achieves the specific goals of the respective process area(s). Folklore! Capability Level 2: The organization institutionalizes a managed process for the respective process area(s). Capability Level 3: The organization institutionalizes a defined process for the respective process area(s). What are the Generic Goals?

a.k.a. What are the differences among the Capability Levels? a.k.a. What do they mean when they say process institutionalization ? A: The Generic Goals *are*, in fact, perfectly parallel with the Capability Levels. Military On Accountability! In other words, Generic Goal 1 (GG1) aligns with Capability Level 1 (CL1). GG2 with CL2, and GG3 with CL3.

So when someone says their process area(s) are performing at Capability Level 3 they are saying that their process areas are achieving Generic Goal 3. The Generic Goals are cumulative, so saying that a process area is family folklore, CL3 (or GG3) includes that they are achieving GG1 and GG2 as well. Generic Goal 1 [GG1]: The process supports and enables achievement of the specific goals of the process area by transforming identifiable input work products to produce identifiable output work products. So, you're wondering what's this business about institutionalization . What it means is the is to become essay, extent to family folklore which your processes have taken root within your organization. It's not just a matter of how widespread the processes are, because institutionalization can take place in even 1-project organizations. Military Essays! So then, it's really about how they're performed, how they're managed, how they're defined, what you measure and control the processes by, and how you go about folklore continuously improving upon them.

What's High Maturity About? a.k.a. What's the fuss about High Maturity Lead Appraisers? a.k.a. What's the web 2.0, fuss about the family folklore, informative materials in the High Maturity process areas? A: High Maturity refers to the four process areas that are added to achieve Maturity Levels, 4 and 5:

Organizational Process Performance (OPP), Quantitative Project Management (QPM), Organizational Performance Management (OPM), and Causal Analysis and Resolution (CAR) Collectively, these process areas are all about making decisions about military essays projects, work, and processes based on family folklore essay performance numbers, not opinions, not compliance, and eventually not on rearward-looking data, rather, forward-looking and predictive analysis. the only required and expected components of the model are the goals and practice statements, respectively, and misunderstanding and/or misinterpretation of the model high maturity practices. The action to address these facets stems from a flood of master web 2.0, findings that many high maturity appraisals didn't accept as evidence those artifacts that convey the family essay, proper intent and implementation of these higher maturity concepts were applied at the organizations appraised. Master Thesis! In fact, the opposite was found to essay be true. That, what *was* accepted as evidence conveyed that the high maturity practices were clearly indicating that the military essays on accountability, practices were *NOT* implemented properly. Family Folklore! It's not that organizations and/or appraisers purposely set out to deceive anyone.

The matter was not one of ethics, it was one of understanding the concepts that made these practices add value. It was even found that organizations were able to generate erroneously-assumed high-maturity artifacts on foundations of erroneously interpreted Maturity Level 2 and 3 practices! What's a Constellation? A: A constellation is a particular collection of process areas specifically chosen to help improve a given business need. Currently there are three (3) constellations: Development: For improving the development of (product or complex service) solutions. Acquisition: For improving the purchasing of my ambition in life a teacher essay, products, services and/or solutions. Services: For improving delivery of services and creation of service systems (say, to folklore operate a solution but not buy it or build it in the first place). Thesis! There are 16 of the process areas common to family all three constellations, Basically, in of cannibals, all CMMIs, you have all the process areas listed here minus the essay, following process areas specific to military essays on accountability CMMI-DEV: A quick reminder that the process ares listed here are for the DEV constellation only.

The SVC and ACQ constellations have the core 16 noted above, plus some others for their respective constellation-specific disciplines. How many different ways are there to implement CMMI? A: Infinite, but 2 are most common. But before we get into that, let's set the family folklore essay, record straight. You do *not* implement CMMI the way someone implements the requirements of a product. The only thing getting implemented are your organization's work flows along with whatever standard processes and associated procedures your organization feels are appropriate--not what's in master thesis web 2.0, CMMI. CMMI has nothing more than a set of practices to help you *improve* whatever you've got going on. CAUTION: If whatever you've got going on is garbage, CMMI is unlikely to help.

AND, if you create your organization's processes only using CMMI's practices as a template you'll not only never get anything of value done but your organization's work flows will be dreadfully lacking all the important and family folklore essay necessary activities to essays of cannibals montaigne operate the business! Where in our workflow does *that* happen? How does *that* show up? What do we do that accomplishes *that*? Or simply, add the words How do we ___ ahead of any practice and put a question mark at the end. For any practice where you don't have an answer or don't like the answer, consider that your operation is at risk.

EVERY CMMI practice avoids a risk, reduces the impact of a risk, buys you options for future risks/opportunities, or reduces uncertainty. EVERY.ONE. Family Folklore! You might need a bit of expert guidance to help you refactor the practice so that it appears more relevant and us presidential useful to your particular needs, but there is a value-add or other benefit to every practice. Truly. (Admittedly, whether or not there's value to *your* business to modify your behavior to realize the benefit of a given practice is an entirely different question.) The blunt-object approach resembles what many process improvement experts call process silos, stove pipes, or layers. This approach is also often implemented *to* a development team *by* some external process entity with brute force and very extreme prejudice. So, not only family essay, does the blunt approach employ some very unsavory techniques, subjecting its royal subjects to essays on nelson mandela's life cruel and unusual process punishment, it also (in its design) is folklore essay, characterized by a look and feel of a process where each process is in us presidential scholar, its own vacuum, without any connection to other processes (or to reality, for folklore essay that matter), and where the practices of the processes are somehow expected to life be performed serially, from one to the next, in the absence of family folklore essay, any other organizational context. A few other common (non-exhaustive, and not mutually-exclusive) characteristics of the non-recommended approach include:

Heavy emphasis on compliance irrespective of life, performance. Family Folklore Essay! Little or no input from of cannibals montaigne staff on what the processes should be. Using CMMI practices as project or process requirements. Measures and goals that have little/nothing to do with actual business performance. No one can answer the question: Outside of compliance, what has the family essay, process done for on accountability my bottom line? Complaints about the cost of compliance from people who actually watch things like the bottom line. If so many implementations of family essay, CMMI are guided by an (internal or external process) expert, one might (justifiably) wonder how and why CMMI processes could ever be implemented in us presidential, such an obviously poorly conceived approach! There are two (sometimes inter-related) reasons: Lack of understanding of the model, and Being an expert process auditor, and folklore not a process improvement expert. Essays On Accountability! Unfortunately, being an folklore expert process auditor does not make someone a process improvement expert.

However, one need not prove themselves an expert in essays mandela's life, process improvement to train, consult, or appraise in family, the CMMI. We wish it weren't so, and, it might be changing, but for now, that's the way it is. So, what you have are many people who become experts in CMMI, but they're really only experts in the model's text and in appraising an organization's ability to read the text and on accountability produce text-book artifacts. They're not necessarily experts in process improvement or performance excellence , in general, or in implementing CMMI in particular. We've come across countless examples of organizations' attempts to implement CMMI while being led by someone (or plural) who was at least one of the family folklore essay, two types of persons, and web 2.0 too frequently, both at once. Folklore Essay! Frightening, but true.

The jury is still out on whether it's worse to in life a teacher essay be led by such a non-expert or to attempt Do-It-Yourself CMMI implementation. What the jury is definitely in agreement on is that if your focus is on CMMI and not on essay improving business performance, you're really wasting your time. Again, we digress. We can't allow ourselves to explain our favored reality-based approach without first explaining what the other approach really is. Not so that our approach looks better, and not because we must justify our approach, but because we feel that it's important for people new to CMMI and/or to my ambition is to process/performance improvement to be prepared to recognize the signs of doom and be able to do something about it before it's too late. All kidding aside, believe it or not, there are organizations for whom the blunt/silo/stove-pipe approach actually works well, and we wouldn't necessarily recommend that they change it. Family Folklore Essay! These organizations tend to is to become a teacher essay share certain characteristics including any number of the following: being larger, bureaucratic by necessity, managing very large and/or complex projects; and, there's an essay actual, justifiable reason for their approach. In fact, in master web 2.0, these cases, the effect is actually neither blunt, nor particularly silo'd, but these types of organizations have other mechanisms for softening the effect that such an family folklore essay approach would have on smaller projects/organizations. And, that is precisely, how we can characterize the main difference between the two approaches: we believe that the reality-based approach to implementing CMMI works well in montaigne, most types of organizations and work/projects of most scope, where the brute-force approach would not. What does the family, blunt/brute-force/silo/stove-pipe approach look like? In a nutshell, the a teacher, traits of that approach are: Organizational processes mirror the process areas.

This alone makes no sense since the process areas aren't processes and essay don't actually get anything out the what should i write essay about, door. Process area description documents are prescriptive and implementation of the processes do not easily account for family folklore the inter-relatedness of the process areas to one another, or of the generic practices to the specific practices. Us Presidential! Furthermore, the processes seem to folklore essay be implemented out-of-step with actual development/project/services work. Nowhere in the descriptions or artifacts of the processes is it clear how and master thesis when the process gets done. It's not a matter of poorly written processes, quite the opposite, many of these processes are the exemplar of process documents. What these processes lack is a connection to the work as it actually happens. Without a process subject-matter expert on hand, it's unlikely that the process would actually get done. In many cases (thanks to the sheer size of the organization) such processes *are*, in fact, done by a process specialist, and not by personnel doing the family folklore, work. In other words, with such processes, if an organization doesn't have the us presidential scholar, luxury of process specialists to do the process work, it would be difficult for essay someone actually doing the real work who is trying to essays of cannibals follow the processes to see how the process activities relate to his or her activities and/or to see when/where/how to implement the process activities on actual tasks at essay, hand. Because of this, this approach to CMMI often has the feel (or the actual experience) of an external organization coming in to do CMMI *to* the organization, or as often, that staff members must pause their revenue-oriented work to complete process-oriented activities.

Therein lies the greatest draw-back (in our opinion) to the most common approach. Instead of process improvement being an integral and transparent characteristic of scholar essays, everyday work, it becomes a non-productive layer of overhead activity superimposed on top of real work. And yet, this seems to be the prevalent way of implementing CMMI! Crazy, huh? Why is it so prevalent? That's where the two reasons of poor implementation, above, come in. People who don't understand the model as well as people who are not process experts (and therefore may have a weak understanding of the model) don't truly get that the model is not prescriptive, and so they attempt to make it a prescription. Auditing and appraising to family folklore a prescription is scholar, far easier and less ambiguous than auditing and appraising to a robust integrated process infrastructure. Frankly, the common approach suits the family, lowest common denominator of companies and appraisers. Those companies and appraisers who aren't after true improvement, and are only after a level rating, and who are willing (companies -- unknowingly -- (sometimes) ) to what i write essay sacrifice the morale and productivity of their projects for the short-term gain of family essay, what becomes a meaningless rating statement. Alright already!

So what's the essays on accountability, reality-based approach about?! The reality-based approach starts with a premise that a successful organization is already doing what it needs to be doing to be successful, and, that process improvement activities can be designed into family essay the organization's existing routines. Life! Furthermore, the reality-based approach also assumes that, as a business, the organization actually *wants* to family folklore increase their operational performance. Thesis Web 2.0! Note the use of designed into. This is crucial.

This means that for reality-based process improvement (reality-based CMMI implementation), the folklore, operational activities must be known, they must be definable, and, they must be at what should my narrative about, work for folklore the organization. Us Presidential! Then, activities that achieve the goals of family essay, CMMI can be designed into those pre-existing activities. This whole business of designing process improvement activities into product/project activities illuminates a simple but powerful fact: effective process improvement (CMMI included) requires processes to essays montaigne be engineered. Sadly, a recent Google search on process engineering turned up few instances where the search term was associated with software processes, and most of those positive hits were about essay software products, not process improvement. The results were even more grim with respect to improving acquisition practices, but, happily, there are many strong associations between process engineering and the notion of services and other operations. There is hope. Besides the essays, reality of what's already working, other attributes of our preferred implementation approach is family essay, that we don't expect the processes to be done by someone else, and, we don't expect them to magically apparate into existence. For both of those attributes to be in place, the is to, reality-based approach doesn't rely on family folklore essay process descriptions to make the processes happen. Instead, the practices that achieve the goals of the processes are built into us presidential scholar the very product, service and project activities of the organization's work, and, the process descriptions simply describe where in that work to find the practices happening.

One other attribute of our approach that is in essay, stark contrast with the most common approaches is this: one of the expected practices of every managed process area is mandela's, that they are planned for each project. The common approach interprets this as requiring a distinct plan for each process area for each project/work effort. Our approach categorically rejects this notion in family folklore essay, favor of an epiphany we like to share with clients: You can have a plan for performing each process without having to create an entirely new plan for doing so as long as you've already done all the planning. If a process works well, why re-plan it if the only thing that will change is who, when, and the project names (if that)? Planning for performing a process is part of institutionalizing a managed process, which is what Generic Goal 2 (thus, Capability Level 2) achieves. If not re-inventing the planning piece for each project *is* appropriate, can't the thesis, same be said for family folklore the remainder of the practices in essays montaigne, institutionalizing a managed process? We believe, yes. In the end we extend this concept to account for the capabilities of family folklore, having managed and defined processes. My Ambition In Life Is To Become A Teacher! We extend it in such a way that any and all processes an family essay organization wants to improve can be managed and defined whether or not those processes come from CMMI. The reality-based process improvement approach (CMMI or not) results in process improvement artifacts that appear where the real work gets done, and not as an essays overhead process, or a process performed by process commandos, or a process that only generates artifacts if developers and project managers have to go searching for proof that the process was performed.

For what it's worth, this approach is what we at Entinex call Agile CMMI. Do we have to do everything in the book? Also known as: What's actually required to be said that someone's following CMMI? A: The Goals are required. Everything else is mostly commentary.

Let's be frank (as if we haven't been frank thus far). Family Folklore Essay! The only time whether or not you're doing what's in CMMI (or not) matters is if/when you're aiming to be appraised. Otherwise, you'd just do whatever you want to get the essays on nelson mandela's, most improvement out family folklore, of and on accountability ignore what you don't need. Having said that, the context of this answer is then about what's required for people who want it said that they are doing CMMI, and for the most part, this means that they're going to determine this via an family essay appraisal. In fact, nowhere in the CMMI model literature does it discuss CMMI requirements for process improvement. Essays Of Cannibals! The model is very careful to only use terms that imply that requirements of the model are for the model, not for process improvement.

That's why CMMI is just *a* model for process improvement, not *the* model for it. The discussion of essay, CMMI as far as requirements are concerned are in the materials that define the appraisal. This is also an often misunderstood aspect of CMMI. SO. in of cannibals montaigne, the context of family, performing activities that appear like they came from the model -- especially where an scholar essays appraisal is concerned -- there are three types of model content components: required, expected, and informative The goals are required. Achieving/satisfying all the goals of a process area satisfies the family folklore, process area. Military On Accountability! Since goals don't get done by family folklore essay, themselves (sports analogies work well here), an organization must be performing some kind of practices in i write essay about, order to achieve a goal, therefore, in the absence of any other practices, CMMI provides some practices that an organization might perform to satisfy each goal. That's why the practices are expected, but not required.

The organization might have entirely different practices and might have a different number of folklore, practices, either of which are entirely OK as far as CMMI goes, but *something* must be happening to achieve a goal. If an mandela's life organization is *doing* something, then it must be resulting is some form of identifiable, tangible output. However, not every organization does the same thing, therefore not every organization produces the family, same outputs, and my ambition is to therefore sub-practices, most narratives and sample work products of family folklore essay, a process' practices are only informative, and neither expected, nor required. Just to be technically complete, there is more content in the model, but it doesn't even fall into the informative content component. The appraisal even has a term for practices that achieve goals that aren't in the model. They're called (logically enough) alternative practices ! It logically leads to the reality that an organization's alternative practices include sub-practices and produce work products that aren't in the model. What does this mean for us presidential an appraisal or the appraiser?

It means that in order to family demonstrate that an organization's process area (or a goal) is satisfied, they might not be able to solely rely on the stated practices, typical work products, or sub-practices of a process area. Essays! This means that not only family, might it be a good bit of work before an appraisal for the appraiser(s) to get up to essays on nelson life speed and elbow-deep into an organization's processes, but it could even drag with it the need to be somewhat competent in the kind of work an organization does or tools they use. DANGER! That kind of essay, in-depth involvement puts appraisers (and consultants) at some risk: they might be exposed for not being competent in the ways and means of modern operations! (Did we just say that?) Well, in for a penny. let's go the whole way. We have a saying around here, the first part most people have heard of: Those who cannot do, teach. [We added this next corollary:] Those who cannot teach, audit. It's much easier on the appraiser if the master thesis web 2.0, expected model components were investigated as required and essay if some of the informative materials were also expected or required in order to demonstrate the (now, newly promoted) required parts (in their minds). This is closely tied to our discussion above regarding the essays life, implementation approaches. But until now, we didn't have enough background to folklore get into it. Essays! The blunt approach to CMMI is replete with verbatim practices (which is often fine -- except where they're just floating out family folklore, there without being tied to everyday work) and verbatim sub-practices, which starts to scholar essays get a little fishy since sub-practices often change with the family, context of the projects, and essays montaigne verbatim typical work products, which is even fishier since it's rare that any one piece of an organization's work will use/need/produce so many work products. Essay! These are the tell-tale signs of an organization that doesn't really understand CMMI, or an appraiser/consultant who's just plain lazy (or worse, incompetent)! Why does it cost so much?

A: Well that's a loaded and ambiguous question! What qualifies as so much? We'll just tell you what goes into the costs here and you can determine whether it's reasonable for what should i write about you or how you can go about minimizing cost or maximizing value. Here are the variables that go into family folklore the factors that affect cost: Where you are *now* with respect to your implementation of essays of cannibals montaigne, process improvement using CMMI? (i.e., Present-State or Gap Analysis Results) How process-oriented is your company? Do you understand process improvement? Do you have a culture that embraces a disciplined approach to killing-off things that don't work in favor of things that do? Do you have process improvement professionals on staff? Are you dedicating explicit resources to managing your process improvement activities?

How much process improvement implementation work will your company do on its own? vs. How much process improvement implementation work will your company need outsider help doing? How much progress do you think you'll be able to make? Meaning, how fast can you absorb change? Will implementing process improvement always be competing for resources from other work? Will all the time for implementing a process improvement system be outside ordinary billable hours? And, How quickly do you want to make progress? Other considerations include your organization's size, the kind of work you do, the kind of products you build and techniques and folklore tools you employ to build them, the kind of us presidential essays, contracts you find yourself in, your relationship with your clients, the way you manage your projects, skills your people have and the nature and family folklore essay composition of your organization and essays mandela's life management structures. NOT trivial. Here's another reason people perceive that implementing CMMI costs so much: Implementations that went bad.

There are far more bad implementation stories than success stories. By bad we simply mean those implementations that, while many of family essay, them did achieve a maturity level ratings, and all the while they were spending lots of time and us presidential essays money, they were also causing disillusionment, cynicism, and processes that fundamentally didn't work! It's very easy to screw-up process improvement implementation, with or without CMMI. Because CMMI is family essay, a very complete model, it has the side-effect of further complicating process improvement. The easiest way to screw it up is to attempt to implement the CMMI model as either a development standard and/or as a checklist (making all non-required pieces to CMMI required), and/or by buying so-called CMMI-enabling tools. While there are also many ways to being a CMMI implementation success story, what these stories share in common are the should i write my narrative, following attributes: Treat process improvement with the same rigor as a technical project. Folklore! Create a process architecture that reflects how real work is done, then find where/how that reality can be improved as a business process. Executive management understands the about, model, what's being done, what's going to change, how *their* jobs will change, and the meaning of commitment. Create and family sustain a culture of process improvement. Recognize that process improvement takes time and discipline, exactly like a nutrition and exercise program.

And, Process Improvement can't be done *to* a project, it's done *by* the military, project by the very nature of their work, not by any explicit CMMI activities But, we are not in essay, a position to give numbers. We hope you now understand why. Why does it take so long? A: That's a loaded and ambiguous question! What qualifies as so long? We'll just tell you what goes into the time frames here and you can determine whether it's reasonable for you or how you can go about minimizing time or maximizing progress. Please see the previous question.

Why would anyone want to do CMMI if they didn't have to do it to get business? A: Because they must be perceiving that the way they do technology development or services now isn't giving them everything they want or need to be confident in their ability to produce the results they want/expect (profit, happy clients, low overhead, etc.) and to thesis do it in a consistent way. If that's not you, move on. Family Folklore Essay! Otherwise, give CMMI a shot and check back here for more elaboration on military essays this topic soon. Isn't CMMI just about software development? A: Nope. It can be used for family folklore Systems Engineering, Integrated Product Development (i.e., large, complex projects), and Supplier Sourcing. It can even be abstracted so it can help organizations who do technology services as well. More on that coming up. What's the difference between CMMI v1.1 and v1.2? A: Since the current version of CMMI is v1.3, we won't get into detailed differences between v1.1 and v1.2, but a summary of major changes to the model (only) are as follows:

Both representations (Staged/Continuous) are packaged together. The advanced practices and common feature concepts were eliminated. Hardware amplifications and examples were added. All definitions were consolidated in the glossary. IPPD practices were consolidated and simplified. There are no longer separate IPPD process areas; IPPD concepts became additions noted by +IPPD after two PAs (OPD and IPM). These PAs gained new goals and practices invoked only for organizations wanting IPPD. Supplier Agreement Management (SAM) and Integrated Supplier Management (ISM) were consolidated, and the original v1.1 Supplier Sourcing addition was eliminated. Generic practice (GP) elaborations were added to the (maturity/capability) level 3 GPs. An explanation of how process areas support the implementation of GPs was added.

Material was added to montaigne ensure that standard processes are deployed on projects at their startup. With v1.2, there were changes to the SCAMPI process and all CMMI training courses as well. What's the difference between CMMI v1.2 and v1.3? A: CMMI v1.3 does several things: Aligns all three (3) constellations (DEV, SVC, ACQ) at once. Clarifies language around many practices and goals by removing unnecessary (and sometimes confusion-adding) language. Essay! Focuses more on on accountability improvement -- without assuming things are necessarily bad now and that all users need CMMI just to bad to good and family that users might just be looking for of cannibals montaigne CMMI to help them go from good to great. Tightens language so that goals and practices more clearly state what was intended. Substantially re-writes high maturity process areas (i.e., maturity level 4 and 5) to reflect the original intentions of folklore, those areas (that somehow got lost in what i write my narrative essay about, committee) and to close loop-holes exploited by less scrupulous users.

In that effort, the Organizational Innovation and Deployment (OID) process area has been replaced with Organizational Performance Management (OPM) Eliminates Generic Goals 4 and 5, and family folklore as a result,. Eliminates Capability Levels 4 and 5. Of Cannibals Montaigne! Eliminates the IPPD addition from the DEV constellation. Removes references to essay projects where there is no reason to my ambition is to a teacher essay limit the folklore essay, use of practices to such specific management constructs. Re-orients the essays mandela's, concept of family essay, a project to that of work in CMMI-SVC. Adds several narratives to help CMMI practices be interpreted in essays, agile environments. In all three constellations now, the text elaborating Generic Practices from all process areas were consolidated to one location instead of repeated in each process area. This only means that in one place you'll see elaborations for all process areas for each generic practice. For example, you'll see Generic Practice 2.6 (Control Work Products) listed once and under it you'll see elaborations for family folklore essay each of the become, process areas to help understand how it applies to family each one. Substantial changes to the SCAMPI appraisal method (which, technically, isn't part of CMMI), but *is* part of the CMMI Product Suite.

With each new version, there were changes to all CMMI training courses as well. What's the key limitation for approaching CMMI? A: This question comes to us from one of our readers. We love our readers! What's the key effort required in CMMI implementation? A: This question also comes to us from one of our readers. We love our readers!

How do we determine whether to use CMMI for Development or CMMI for Services? A: This question (paraphrased) also comes to us from one of master thesis web 2.0, our readers. We love our readers! How do customers get from us what we do? Do they submit a request into an existing request system where everyone goes through the same request process and the resulting transaction is only alive for as long (typically short) as the request is outstanding, or, do we build something specific to a specification and/or statement of work where each effort is on a stand-alone contract? How do customers pay for what we do?

Do they pay per request or do they pay for family effort/results over time? Is there a Service Level Agreement in place that we have to my narrative meet? Do we operate more on a transaction basis or more on a trusted advisor basis? (Ignore, for now, what your marketing people say.) What are we trying to improve? How we manage and develop products, or how we provide services? Hopefully, the answers to these questions make the answer to which CMMI constellation to use self-evident. Essay! If not, write back, give us some more detail about the situation, and essays of cannibals montaigne we'll be happy to help you think this through.

How do we get certified? A: OK, let's get something straight here and forever-after: You do not get certified in folklore, CMMI. Essays! At least not yet. In the US, the concept of a certification carries a specific legal expectation and family companies who are *rated* (and that *IS* the right term) to a level of the CMMI are not being certified to anything. So the correct question is, 'how do you get rated?'. And an essays life even more complete question is, 'how do we get rated to a maturity/capability level X?' We'll get to the difference between Maturity Levels and Capability Levels and family folklore what the level numbers mean shortly. The short answer for how to what i write my narrative about get rated still leaves a lot of information on the table. So, if all you read is this short answer, you'll be doing yourself a disservice. Family! The really short answer on what essay getting a level rating is folklore, that you get appraised by an appraisal team led by an CMMI-Institute-Certified Lead Appraiser who determine whether you are performing the practices of the CMMI. This answer is so loaded with hidden terms it's frightening.

So just so you know that you've been warned that this answer is my narrative about, too short, we'll point out each of the terms in our previous answer that has hidden meaning in it: getting level rating you get appraised appraisal team led CMMI-Institute-Certified Lead Appraiser determine whether performing practices CMMI. There's a condition, requirement or definition in and of themselves for each one of these words. Don't get annoyed, SEI isn't the family folklore, first, last, only, or worst organization to essays create such things. Every non-trivial discipline is essay, loaded with concepts that experts can do in their sleep but that requires effort to understand by essays on nelson mandela's life, everyone else. Folklore Essay! It's true of EVERY profession so, _CHILL_OUT_.

Need an example? Think of it like getting into shape. The short answer is diet and exercise. Brilliant. Wonderful. What do you eat? How much? How often? What sort of work-out routine is right for mandela's life you?

How do you work out so that you're not just wasting time or harming yourself? See? Don't be so indignant just because you don't like the idea that you need to get a rating and essay you don't want to. The trend is, that most people asking about what it takes to get a rating are more interested in the rating than the improvement. On Nelson Mandela's Life! That's OK. We understand. Sadly, too well. Keep reading this FAQ. What else did you have to do today anyway? How long does it take?

A: Here's another one of those dead give-away questions that a company is more interested in family folklore, the rating than the become essay, improvement. OK, that's a little unfair. Let's just say that as often as we hear this question, our judgmental attitude holds for ALMOST everyone who asks it. Allright, so maybe you are the exception. Family! The truth is, it's a fair question. For every company. A rare few companies don't care how long it takes. Lucky them. Applying a generous dose of benefit of the doubt, we can assume that the question is asked not for how soon can we get this out of the way? as much as from are there any rules that dictate a minimum time before performing an appraisal? How we can tell whether the company is interested in the improvements vs. the rating is simply a linear function of essays life, how long into the conversation we are before it gets asked.

All-too-often, the family folklore, source of the question is less ignorance of the process and more ignorance of the point behind going through the process. Process improvement purists wish more people were more interested in the journey than in master thesis, the destination. We are process improvement pragmatists. We know you're not looking at CMMI because you had nothing better to folklore essay do with your time and money. Military! That's for Bill Gates and his very worthy charitable endeavors. The company he's famous for founding is still in family folklore essay, business for the money.

FAST. So, how long it takes is i write, a real question regardless of how you spend your money. Fortunately, or unfortunately, the family folklore, answer lies within you, young grasshopper. Really. We can't give you a much better answer than that. What we can do, however, is give you a list of the attributes that you can use to estimate how long it will take you, and of cannibals give you a few example cases and some very general time-ranges. Let's start again with our favorite analogy. Say you're carrying around about folklore 40lbs. (18.18kg) of excess body fat.

How long will it take you to lose the fat? A year? Two? 6 months? Can one person do in essays on nelson mandela's, 6 months what another person needs 2 years? We all know the answer to these questions. IT DEPENDS! EXACTLY!

How quickly a company can become rated to a pre-determined point in the CMMI's rating scale depends entirely on them and their circumstances. It depends on: their level of commitment, their tolerance for and ability to implement change, how busy they are, what they know about process improvement in general and CMMI in particular, and it depends on where they are as a starting point and how much of the organization they want to include in the rating. Working backwards from the appraisal itself (NOT including process changes to incorporate the CMMI practices or goals--only for planning and conducting the appraisal), the absolute minimum calendar time a company should expect between when the starting gun is fired and essay when they cross the finish line is a simple matter of logistics. Essays On Nelson! Probably about a month if they're lucky. Two months would be more realistic.

These 2 months, of course, are just the logistics and prep-work necessary to plan and conduct the appraisal and the activities that lead to an appraisal. Obviously, this time frame would only family, be realistic if the company was completely ready for the appraisal, had done all their homework, knew exactly what the state of their process implementation was and my ambition in life essay were literally trying to do nothing more than figure out how much time they had before they could conduct the appraisal. Of course, such a company wouldn't be asking the question. Family! They'd already know. So then there's almost everyone else. Everyone else needs time to first determine where they are in their implementation of CMMI practices. This is like saying, first we need to. find out how much excess fat we're carrying around. A trip to the right physician would answer this. For CMMI, it's called a Gap Analysis (a term we, here, don't like because it presumes something's missing where we prefer to merely look at the Present State ) and us presidential essays can take a week or two. Then, depending on those factors bulleted earlier, the family folklore, gap found by the analysis would need to be filled.

This is the part where a company would need to what should my narrative about figure out what it's optimum sustainable diet and family exercise routine should be, and, how long to my ambition is to essay stick with it to see the family folklore, desired results. In CMMI v1.1, there were 25 Process Areas, and in v1.2 and v1.3 there are 22 for CMMI for Development and Acquisition , and 24 for Services . There are two ways to look at them. The duration of the military, gap closure activities would also be a function of how many (and which ones) of the Process Areas the folklore essay, organization wanted appraised. Each of the Process Areas could be analogous to some aspect of a healthy lifestyle such as food choices, food quantity, shopping, cooking, meal planning, exercises, frequency, repetitions, technique, equipment, blood work, rest, stress management, work environment, time management, and so on. Obviously, the more of the lifestyle someone wanted to adopt, the longer it would likely take. Once a gap is of cannibals, filled (i.e., the essay, weight is lost and/or new muscle mass is added), an organization should give itself at least 2-3 months (on the short-project end) to 12-16 months (on the larger project end) to actually use their processes. This would provide them with enough data to actually conduct an appraisal.

However, the actual metric isn't the calendar , it's the cycle-time of their development processes. Often called their development life-cycle. Clearly, projects that get from estimate to delivery ( life-cycle ) quickly are going through their processes and generating artifacts of doing so. This is the value to key off of essays of cannibals montaigne, moreso than the clock. On the fat-loss analogy, this would be like finding that point where diet and exercise are enough to keep the weight off and one is able to demonstrate to themselves (or others, as needed) that they can, in family folklore essay, fact, live and sustain a healthy lifestyle -- in essays on accountability, the face of temptation and other uncertainties.

Once people internalize how process improvement works, how long it takes to earn a rating is a question such people stop asking. Like fat loss and getting into shape, process improvement is family folklore, a discipline backed by many best practices. And, just like getting into shape, people are still seeking a silver bullet. We, on the other hand, stick to a healthy diet and exercise program. When we're off track we know it. We gain fat and feel like crap.

When we're on master web 2.0 it, we see the results. How much does it cost? A: If you've read the answer to the previous question and are still asking this question then you must really only folklore, be wondering about fees, attributes of cost or other general costs. What I Write My Narrative Essay! Otherwise, go and read the answer to How long does it take? because time is money and what it costs is folklore essay, largely a matter of what you spend time doing. As for fees, attributes of cost and essays life other general costs, here's break-down of things that can or will cost you money towards being rated to family folklore essay a capability or maturity level of the CMMI: The Lead Appraiser will need time to meet with you to what should plan the family folklore, appraisal, perform some preliminary evidence review (called Readiness Review) and then to perform the appraisal. The range of what Lead Appraisers charge is pretty wide.

Most charge about $2000/day +/- $1000. As a benchmark for your ball-park, the CMMI Institute has a small cadre of Lead Appraisers who can be hired (NOTE: only a few handfuls of in life, Lead Appraisers actually work for folklore essay the CMMI Institute, most are employees of us presidential scholar essays, other companies or operate independently of the CMMI Institute.). Prior to transferring to the CMMI Institute, the SEI used to charge at least $1800/day from the moment they leave their home (or their last engagement) to the moment they get back home (or to family folklore essay their next engagement). They also charge for all travel expenses as well as time they spend away from your site to do their preparatory and concluding activities. Also, they will often work by the book. Military Essays On Accountability! Meaning, a guidebook exists that assists with planning appraisals.

The guide suggests that, based on the scope of the appraisal, appraisals be scheduled for a certain duration and not be condensed into fewer days and longer hours. Folklore Essay! Lead Appraisers are free to charge whatever they want. not many charge the way the essays, SEI once did. Folklore Essay! (The CMMI Institute will have its own rates that, as of this udpdate, were not known to montaigne us at the CMMIFAQ.info site.) Someone will also need to provide Appraisal Team Training to the people you plan to have on the Appraisal Team. This takes 2 days and is usually done by a Lead Appraiser, and best if done by family, the Lead Appraiser you plan to have doing your appraisal. So, plan on the Lead Appraiser needing about 1-3 weeks to do the preparatory work for an appraisal, including Appraisal Team Training and at least one Readiness Review, and then 1-3 weeks to perform the appraisal itself (depending on essays on nelson mandela's the scope), then another day to wrap-up all the paperwork. Appraisal Team Members. Every Appraisal for family folklore essay a rating is done by a team.

The minimum number of people is 4 and master that can include the family folklore essay, Lead Appraiser. Should About! Every person on the team must meet certain individual pre-requisites and contribute to certain team-wide qualifications. Folklore Essay! (More on that in answer.) It is best if the team's constituents include people from your company as well as outsiders. At the appraisal, if you don't have (and can't create) qualified people in your company to be on essays montaigne the team, then you will need to bring in outside team members. (Most Lead Appraisers keep these in their back pockets -- kinda.) Outside team members are essentially consultants and charge as such. You're doing well if you can get outside team members for family folklore $1000/day. This would be very high-value. And, if you're only charged for a day where 1 day = the date on the calendar, and my narrative about not 1 day = 8 hours, you're doing VERY well. Process Improvement Consulting. If your organization needs to family get up to speed on CMMI, you'll probably do one of two things: (1) Look to hire an employee with the expected expertise, or (2) Look to hire a consultant with the expertise.

Which you choose to do depends on your organization's needs. The pros and cons of either approach are a basic matter of business and military strategy. Either way, there's a cost. As for consultants, they're a lot like Lead Appraisers. Family Folklore Essay! And yes, many Lead Appraisers are also consultants. Essays On Nelson Life! So, what and how they charge is largely up to them. Fees. There are no SEI- or CMMI Institute- mandated fees for folklore improving your processes, using their models, or getting an appraisal. The only fees charged by the SEI or CMMI Institute are for courses licensed by them to the providers of such services, and for using their own in-house consultants or Lead Appraisers. There *are* fees for people using their materials when delivering licensed training. First of all, only authorized or certified people can use the material and when such people do so, and my ambition is to become a teacher the people in family essay, class want it to be official, there's a licensing fee that goes to the SEI and/or CMMI Institute.

Consulting firms can charge whatever they want and call it whatever they want, but if anyone is essays on nelson, implying that there are SEI- or CMMI Institute- mandated fees for consulting or appraising, they're only implying this. What they're really doing is family, simply separating the time you're paying for doing certain things from the time you're paying for doing other things. For example, they might say that there's a fee to file your appraisal results. Essay! Not with the SEI or CMMI Institute, there's not, but it does take time and it's reasonable for them to simply charge you some amount for the time it takes them to put in family, all the paperwork. Other General Costs.

As above, the only other general costs associated with an appraisal are: Official training, and your employees' time on the clock. NOTICE what's *NOT* in the list above: TOOLS. There is NO requirement for the purchase or use of any tool. Anyone saying that in order to us presidential scholar comply with CMMI (or the appraisal) that you must purchase a tool, they're full of folklore essay, *crap!* Some consultants do use tools as part of their work and as part of you hiring them you are also buying a license to use the tool. Should My Narrative About! That's OK.

Since you will end up using the folklore essay, tool after they're gone, it's reasonable that you should pay for using something that is either the consultant's intellectual property, or something they bought and essays montaigne are bringing to the table. And, it's up to you if you want to hire that company. It's not reasonable for you to hire a consultant who tells you they use a tool and then tell them not to use it so you don't have to pay for their tools. Many consultants work their pricing structure into family folklore essay the productivity and efficiencies they gain by using a tool and of cannibals asking them to stand by family, their rates when you've asked them to leave their tools in the shed is not playing nice. Essays Of Cannibals! On the other hand, anyone telling you that if you don't buy their tool then you are not going to family essay meet the essays on nelson life, CMMI's requirements or pass the appraisal is family essay, FLAT OUT LYING LYING LYING. and should be reported to the SEI/CMMI Institute!

And, you can do that by taking a number of actions listed here. What's involved (in getting a rating)? A: Um. that's a little broad, don'chya think? But, we get that question frequently enough so we might as well answer it. At least at a very high altitude. There are three broad steps towards achieving a level rating:

This is usually called a gap analysis or present state analysis. The right person to do this is mandela's, someone who really understands the CMMI and family essay how to appraise for the CMMI. Too often we get into companies who thought they were simply smart enough to essays on accountability do it themselves -- in some cases doing nothing more than downloading the model and reading it which is family essay, enough for very few organizations, but it's extremely rare. Even taking the SEI's licensed Introduction to CMMI course(s) seldom provides enough of an understanding to determine, without any other direct experience, how closely your company is performing the expected practices of CMMI, or how your particular implementation of the practices will fare in my ambition become, an appraisal. Also, please don't make the following mistake: Assume you're golden just because you've been through an ISO 9000 audit, you've won the Malcolm Baldridge Award, or even been in an organization assessed to the intent of family folklore essay, SW-CMM. We've actually found that prior experience with other process-oriented bodies of work can work against a company's true understanding of master web 2.0, what CMMI is about, how to implement it effectively, and how to appraise their practices. Once you know what and where your gaps are in implementation you're ready for family essay the next broad step. This is usually called, in CMMI circles, Process Improvement Although this step implies that your processes aren't up to us presidential essays the task as they stand now, what it really implies is that you will likely be making some changes to your current processes as you implement CMMI's practices and the method you should follow is folklore, one of on nelson, process improvement and not simply a re-skinning of your paper trail. The entire purpose behind CMMI is that of essay, performance improvement via process improvement , and companies that simply slap a layer of CMMI processes over top of what they're currently doing is not process improvement, it's death by process; it's WASTE. It's come to our attention that CMMI has a reputation as being death by essays of cannibals, process as it is. We firmly believe that it's the latter approach towards CMMI implementation, as described in folklore essay, the previous paragraph, that causes this, not CMMI.

To be blunt (you're used to it by now, yes?), slapping CMMI over top of essays on accountability, your existing process, those processes that you feel have been working all along, is a STUPID way to family folklore essay implement CMMI. On the other hand, if you do find value in my ambition in life is to a teacher, practices CMMI promotes, then what you want to folklore be doing is implementing them in a way that continues to provide you with the value-proposition of the essays, things you like about your current processes and replacing or adding with CMMI those things that could use some strengthening. The smoothest way to this approach is by following CMMI as a guide to building a systemic process improvement infrastructure. Again, please be advised that doing this on your own without a CMMI expert employee or consultant is not advisable for the same reasons having an expert is best for performing the present state analysis. One last comment on this step (and it's a bit of an family folklore unsung truism about the CMMI): companies who are honestly thrilled with their current process and really have a handle on master web 2.0 the outcome of folklore, their efforts are probably doing a lot of what the CMMI would have you doing. Such companies may call their activities by different names, they might reach the goals in a less traditional way, but ultimately, they are getting the job done and are still in business, so they must be doing things right. (Or at military on accountability, least doing the family, right things.) If this is you, then your effort towards implementing CMMI is going to be quite painless and enjoyable. Oh, OK. Essays On Accountability! there really is folklore essay, one other important point: CMMI says precious little about organizational culture and leadership necessary to make any of essays on accountability, this work. First and foremost, improving performance must address the organizational psychology of the business. If/when there are issues with the organizational psychology, they are nearly always a negative effect on family folklore essay improvement.

If the organizational culture and psychology are not conducive to improvement, give it up. Getting appraised is mandela's, what most people think about family folklore essay when they are looking at CMMI. The appraisal is what gives an organization their Level. Once the what about, appropriate expert can make a sound call on your organization's implementation of the CMMI practices, you can start planning for an appraisal. Details of the appraisal are answered elsewhere in this FAQ.

How does the appraisal work? A: NOTE: This answer is for folklore essay v1.3 of the of cannibals, appraisal method. Users of prior appraisal methods may not recognize this. Just so you understand that the complete answer to this question is ordinarily delivered in 2 days' worth of essay, training. We're obviously limited in what we can explain here. We're going to pick up the appraisal with the portion of the essays on nelson mandela's life, appraisal that most people think about: the on-site period. It's that period of time when there's an appraisal team at your company and folklore essay they're looking at your evidence and conducting interviews (or performing some other accepted form of verbal affirmation). What Should My Narrative! It's at the end of this period that a company gets the results of the folklore, appraisal and, when all goes well, a rating. So. Of Cannibals! that's pretty much what happens at the appraisal: A team, lead by folklore essay, a Lead Appraiser looks at evidence and makes a judgment on that evidence regarding the extent to which the it demonstrates that CMMI's practices are being implemented.

There are 2 types of evidence: Artifacts and master thesis Affirmations. The evidence comes from the work products of actual organizational activities (projects, services, etc.). In actuality, instead of specifying that evidence come from projects the term is Basic Units. Family Folklore! The number of projects (er, Basic Units) is a function of the organization to which the rating will apply. You need a sample of Basic Units representative of the essays of cannibals, organization. And, no, you can't pick them, the Lead Appraiser works with you to pick them; and, no, you can't look at only the best aspects of the organization and essay puzzle together all the good-looking evidence from i write my narrative essay about a bunch of different activities. The characterizations are then looked at in aggregate according to rules in the MDD across all Basic Units. Basically, after aggregating the characterizations across all Basic Units, no single practice can be characterized as less than Largely Implemented or it will spell disaster. Even then, if certain practices are found even Largely Implemented, and the appraisal team believes there's a pattern in what they're seeing that causes these practices to only be found as Largely Implemented, the team may still choose to folklore essay say that whatever's causing these practices to not be Fully Implemented is essays life, worrisome enough to preclude the folklore, organization from achieving the goals of the Process Area, and if any goal in a Process Area isn't achieved, then it can't be said that the whole Process Area is being satisfied, can it? And, that, our friends, is how the appraisal works: it's a search for whether the essays, organization is satisfying the goals of those Process Areas in family folklore essay, scope of the appraisal. Basic Units are drawn from about Sub-Groups.

Sub-Groups are distinguished by a set of key factors that differentiate on Sub-Group from another. Location: if work is performed in more than one location (can be near, far -- not limited, what matters is whether or not the processes and other relevant attributes are different). Folklore! Customer: if different customers are served by different Basic Units or are served differently because of who the customer is or what they require. Size: if work is performed differently based on the size of the Basic Unit, or Support Function, or the size of the military essays on accountability, effort. Organizational Structure: if work is performed differently in essay, different parts of the organizational structure. Type of master web 2.0, work: if there is more than one distinct type of work done in family folklore essay, the organization (mobile apps vs. mainframe, hardware vs. software, systems of systems vs. electronic components). Once you distinguish Sub-Groups based on my ambition essay these factors (and others, that you and your lead appraiser may determine to be relevant), there's an equation that is used to ensure that the number of Basic Units chosen from each Sub-Group is representative of the family essay, size of the Sub-Group and is representative of the Sub-Group's sizes in relation to the entire organization under consideration.

A: Ah-ha! Finally! A quick and easy question! Who can do the appraisal? A: Another quick and easy question, thanks! A Certified Lead Appraiser. Certified by who? The SEI and/or CMMI Institute. Lead Appraisers (as of this writing) have to essays on nelson qualify by surviving the family folklore essay, following activities in this order (sort-a): Introduction to CMMI Intermediate Concepts of military, CMMI, or two distinct CMMI for Practitioners courses Being a team member on at least 2 SCAMPIs* SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training, various examinations throughout, and Being observed performing a SCAMPI by folklore essay, one of a very few number of people the CMMI Institute trusts to do that sort of thing *Participating on 2 SCAMPIs can happen any time after the Introduction to CMMI course but must happen prior to what my narrative essay about applying for SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training.

The placement of family essay, SCAMPI participation is unrelated to when someone takes Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or the two CMMI for Practitioners courses. NOTE: There is a distinction for High Maturity appraisals and Lead Appraisers. High Maturity are appraisals performed to a target maturity level of 4 or 5. Us Presidential Scholar! High Maturity Lead Appraisers (HMLA) are required to take more coursework, more exams (written and oral), and to qualify in much greater depth of experience and knowledge in concepts found in the Maturity Level 4 and 5 process areas. For all SCAMPI A Lead Appraisers, the now obsolete designation was authorized. Authorized Lead Appraisers who have not moved forward to become certified Lead Appraisers (whether or not high maturity) are no longer qualified to perform SCAMPI A appraisals. Make sure your Lead Appraiser is qualified by asking them for this certification. (This certification does not apply to SCAMPI B C Team Leaders -- they are not certified, they remain authorized.) IMPORTANT!

ALSO, as of v1.2 (2006) of the family essay, MDD: The organization being appraised needs to have a contractual relationship with the Partner Organization sponsoring the Lead Appraiser performing the appraisal in military essays, order for family the appraisal to be valid. This rule stayed in place in MDD v1.3. Can we have our own people on the appraisal? A: Yes! Yes, in fact, it's encouraged. The appraisal team must be at least 4 people strong (including the Lead Appraiser), and with your company's employees on the appraisal team you increase the odds of buy-in to the appraisal process as well as follow-up and i write essay follow-through on any recommended actions from the appraisal.

There are a number of qualifications potential team members must meet, the folklore, most logistically challenging of military on accountability, them being that candidate team members must have had a licensed delivery of the Introduction to CMMI before going into the appraisal activities (which begin a month or more before the actual on-site period). A few other details are also expected which should be worked out between your company and family your Lead Appraiser. Can we have observers at the appraisal? A: Let's first start by defining what an become essay observer is. An observer is folklore, someone who is not qualified to be on the appraisal team, or, despite being qualified is essays of cannibals, not actually on the appraisal team, but is hanging around with the appraisal team while they do their thing. OK, got that? What sort of evidence is required by folklore essay, the appraisal? A: There are 2 types of evidence: Artifacts and Affirmations. Us Presidential! For each practice in the scope of an appraisal, the requirement for evidence (in a SCAMPI Class A appraisal -- which we'll get to later) requires either Artifacts and Affirmations, or either Artifacts or Affirmations, as a function of the volume of family folklore, work being appraised and several other factors determined by the evidence sampling rules. These are the my ambition in life is to essay, actual product or output of following a procedure, performing a process or some direct or supporting output or outcome of implementing a practice. Essay! It's fairly simple.

If, for example, the way you implement a practice says you are to fill out a certain template, then the essays on nelson, filled-out template is a Direct artifact of the practice. It doesn't matter whether the family essay, artifacts are a direct work product of the master thesis web 2.0, process or whether the artifact is a clear support to performing the work necessary to produce a work product. Artifacts are simply something tangible coming from having the practice performed. Sometimes these are agendas or minutes from meetings where it can be seen that a certain topic was addressed, and it happens that working through the issue is, in effect, doing a practice. Another common example would be where different versions of the same work product demonstrate that the work product was updated over time. Family Essay! And, successive versions would indicate that a process was in place to make the changes. If the military essays, practice says to keep track of changes, these versions could be used to demonstrate that changes were made, and folklore one could infer that there was some way to keep track of them even though the fact that changes were made isn't actually the same as keeping track of of cannibals montaigne, changes. Sometimes, it might even be something the appraisal team can observe while it's happening. All of which are tangible.

Essentially interviews. These can also be obtained through other means such as surveys and demonstrations, most appraisals find it useful to conduct face-to-face interviews with the family essay, people who are actually doing the work, and hopefully, performing the practices. Again, the mix of artifacts and affirmations are an important detail that follow specific rules. Thesis! The rules themselves are HIGHLY context-dependent. Family! You're best working with a Certified Lead Appraiser on how to apply the rules to your specific situation. The rules themselves are in us presidential, the Method Definition Document (MDD v1.3). Look for the terms Coverage, Sampling, or Data Sufficiency. How much of our company can we get appraised? A: The part of your company that gets the actual rating is called the Organizational Unit. This can be the entire company or only parts of folklore, it as determined by the types of work (and as such, the types of us presidential essays, processes) the company wants the appraisal to be performed on, and as a result, the family essay, appraisal results to apply towards.

How many projects (basic units) need to be appraised? A: NOTE: Since the SCAMPI (appraisal) method applies to more than just CMMI for Development, the notion of scholar, what is appraised is no longer limited to family essay projects. The broader (if, admittedly, more vague) term, basic unit is used. Basic Unit is the name applied by the CMMI appraisal method to the dimension of work performaned by an organization as evaluated in an appraisal. In many cases, these Basic Units are discrete projects or types of in life a teacher essay, services . But because projects or types of services don't always meet the needs of an appraisal (or of an organization scoping an appraisal), we use Basic Units as a more generic term. Folklore! Basic units are drawn from essays Sub-Groups of the organization. Location: if work is performed in more than one location (can be near, far -- not limited, what matters is whether or not the processes and other relevant attributes are different).

Customer: if different customers are served by different Basic Units or are served differently because of who the customer is or what they require. Size: if work is performed differently based on the size of the Basic Unit, or Support Function, or the family essay, size of the effort. Organizational Structure: if work is performed differently in different parts of the master, organizational structure. Family Essay! Type of work: if there is more than one distinct type of scholar essays, work done in the organization (mobile apps vs. mainframe, hardware vs. Family Folklore Essay! software, systems of systems vs. electronic components). Can we have more than one appraisal and thesis web 2.0 inch our way towards a rating? A: No, At least not yet. Well, at least not in the way you're thinking. You can have as many appraisals as you want, however, at folklore, this time, if you want a Maturity Level rating (or even a Capability Level rating -- more on that later), you will only achieve that if the appraisal looks at all the essays, evidence for all the folklore, Process Areas in the scope of the appraisal in a single appraisal. There is talk afoot of allowing something like a cumulative appraisals where you can do some subset of an appraisal scope then come back and do a little more, and so on us presidential scholar until you've completed the scope and then putting it all together for a rating, but that's not how it works today. If you do perform several appraisals where none (except, perhaps, the folklore essay, last) are for of cannibals montaigne a complete Maturity Level, it would only serve to provide you a sense of how you're doing, you couldn't use the results of folklore, those appraisals to my ambition become a teacher essay pare down what needs to be done at the appraisal you're conducting for all the marbles. If we go for a level now, do we have to go through it again to get to the next level?

A: Yes. Whether you are pursuing a Maturity or Capability level rating, you go through all the evidence again for whatever levels you achieved before. One reason is that at this time there are no mechanisms in place to allow for cumulative appraisals, which is what would be necessary to make this approach work. However, even more fundamentally, the appraisal team and family essay Lead Appraiser can't be expected to assume that there would be evidence from the lower levels to support the in life become, higher levels' activities. Even more basic than that is the fact that the levels support one another and it would be very unlikely that appraising to a higher level could be accomplished without evidence from the folklore essay, earlier levels. The only exception to this is if an appraisal is essays of cannibals, spread out over a period of time, and is, in fact, one long appraisal.

The time-limit for completing a single appraisal is 90 days. How long does the certification last? A: Setting aside the family essay, fact that it's *NOT* a certification (See #1), the current answer is essays, that Appraisal Results will be recognized by folklore essay, the CMMI Institute for three (3) years from date of the appraisal's acceptance by the CMMI Institute (or if prior to 1 Dec 2012, by the SEI. What is the difference between SCAMPI Class A, B and C appraisals? A: The differences boil down to the level of rigor, and, as reflection of the level of rigor, to what the outcomes can be. How do we pick a consultant or lead appraiser? A: Anyone claiming to be a lead appraiser must be certified by the CMMI Institute to do so. The CMMI Institute refers, collectively, to all people certified to perform CMMI-related work using their materials as a certified individual. Thus, all actual lead appraisers are certified individuals.

You can search/sort a list of such people here, and, specifically limit your search to my ambition is to become a teacher lead appraisers. To narrow your search to family folklore a geographic area, you're better off searching for a CMMI Institute partner. The partner search has many more ways to search, which includes limiting to a certain type of service offered. And then, once you find a partner, you can see the my ambition is to a teacher, authorized individuals associated with that partner. Caveat Emptor (buyer beware), and family folklore Pick one who you feel can understand your business and your needs; your context . WHY must the web 2.0, buyer beware? Because interpreting models for family how a given implementation can be done, and also recognizing that a given implementation of thesis, a model is a legitimate interpretation of the folklore essay, model are far from mandela's life exact science. CMMI is a model not a standard, as we've said many times before. It's not something that, when applied, will look the same each time. Furthermore, as we've said, the practices in family essay, the model are not processes themselves, they are practices to improve processes.

It takes skill to effectively interpret the model and implement it in a given situation, and, it takes contextual relate-ability to appraise whether the model has been implemented or interpreted properly/effectively. Where can we see a list of organizations that have been appraised? A: Finally! A question with a simple, straight-forward and easy answer! There are, however, a few points to on accountability keep in mind: Not all organizations have asked to be listed in family essay, the system, not appearing does not guarantee they have not been appraised. If an organization has changed their name after being listed, they will *not* be listed with their subsequent name(s), organizations are only listed with the name they had when the appraisal was performed. Pay close attention to the Organizational Unit (OU) (discussed on this FAQ here) of the military essays on accountability, appraisal. Though you may be interested in essay, validating whether a company has been rated, it's rare that entire companies are rated (especially if the company is not small). A company may be listed, but the organizational unit in the listing may not be the same as the one you're looking for.

Or, there may be several organizational units within a single company. Do not take for essays of cannibals granted that the organization you are researching is (or its people are) the same as the one appearing in the system. Family! Once all the appraisal data is fully completed and submitted to the CMMI Institute, it can take 30 days before appearing in the PARS. Most common causes of taking longer include: appraisal team or sponsor not completing their appraisal experience surveys, appraisal sponsor not signing the appraisal disclosure statement (ADS), or issues with the results that are being investigated by CMMI Institute's SCAMPI QA process. What happens when a company with a CMMI rating is military essays on accountability, bought, sold, or merged with another company? A: Current and prior versions of appraisals (through and including v1.3) are patently rearward-looking. Furthermore, in family, v1.3, explicit sampling factors were put in place to distinguish important characteristics of the organizations being appraised that may cause the circumstances and therefore the processes to change from essays of cannibals montaigne one part of the operation to another. Family Essay! As such, the only valid statements that can be made about an organization and appraisals performed on the organization are statements related to the specific organization named in the appraisal results at the time of the appraisal.

What's the official record of the appraisal results? A: The Appraisal Disclosure Statement (ADS) is the sole and essays life entirety of the family essay, official results of the appraisal, regardless of what does or does not appear in the CMMI Institute's Published Appraisal Results System, (PARS). Nothing in any appraisal presentation, and unlikely anything to be found framed and on the wall at a company, or printed on in life is to a teacher essay a large banner and hung from a footbridge are official or complete indication of folklore essay, what exactly was appraised and us presidential scholar essays the meaning and context of the results of an appraisal. (It's unlikely, but possible, that a company might actually frame their ADS. It's several pages long; but in the spirit of avoiding any absolutes we can't prove, above, we used the folklore, phrase . and unlikely anything to be found. .) In any case, the ADS is generated by the Lead Appraiser after all the other data has been collected and submitted to the appraisal system. It's signed by us presidential scholar essays, the appraiser and the sponsor, and contains all the details of the appraisal, its circumstances, the explicit organizational unit to which the results apply, and the results themselves. If someone were serious about determining whether an organization has been appraised, when, to what end, and to what scope, they should request to see the non-confidential parts (if any are even confidential) of the ADS. Can we go directly to Maturity Level 5? A: Technically, it *is* possible in family folklore essay, the most explicit use of the term possible to be rated directly at maturity level 5. All this means (in the case of maturity level 5 for Development , for example) is that the should about, organization was appraised performing the Specific Goals of folklore, all 22 process areas up to and including Generic Goal 3 of what my narrative essay, each process area. The fact that they were not level-rated before this results in family essay, the organization having appeared as achieving ML5 directly . What is the essays life, difference between renewing the CMMI rating and trying to get it again once it has expired? A: Generally, the difference is family folklore, only in master thesis web 2.0, how much preparation it takes the organization. In our collective experience, most 1 st -time ratings require some amount of transition from the family folklore essay, original present state of the organization's practices to some new present state of practice in later future such that they can attain the desired level rating.

Q: Can my organize go directly to a formal SCAMPI A without any SCAMPI B or SCAMPI C? Is it mandatory that before a formal SCAMPI A, formal SCAMPI C and B should be completed? A: A: We've gotten this question more than a few times, so it's about time we put it onto the CMMI FAQ. This is true for *any* SCAMPI A--regardless of should i write essay, whether it is folklore essay, your second, tenth, or first, or any other SCAMPI A. CMMI, Agile, LifeCycles and other Process Concepts FAQs. What if our development life cycle doesn't match-up with CMMI's? A: CMMI isn't a development life cycle. It's a model for building an improvement system to continuously improve very particular areas of what goes on during development, regardless of the life cycle. This is i write essay about, a central tenet of Entinex's approach to CMMI, by the way. Life cycles and management structures, Scrum, Kanban, XP, whatever, are not incompatible with CMMI because they're only related to CMMI in as much as they may cause you to do things that happen to help you improve what you do. CMMI is agnostic to *how* you manage your work, or the methodology you use to develop your products (or deliver services).

CMMI is not where you'll learn how to build your product or deliver your services. CMMI will not tell you how to operate your business. CMMI is only helpful if you already know how to folklore do these things and military essays is then used to folklore essay improve your performance. Lifecycles are how you get things done. You choose them and of cannibals CMMI can help you improve within them. Doesn't the CMMI only folklore essay, work if you're following the of cannibals, Waterfall model?

A: NO! CMMI is not about folklore essay development life cycles. While a fair criticism of essays on nelson, CMMI is that many of the contributors come from a Waterfall- centric or a Big Plan Up Front, top-down way of developing wares, they were at least careful not to box anyone into following a specific development method. Nonetheless, it takes very deep understanding of the CMMI to family essay implement it, regardless of which life cycle you follow. Is To Essay! We've got more to family essay say on this, so check back in a bit. Meanwhile, you can browse over to our AgileCMMI blog. How does CMMI compare with ISO/TL 9000 and what should ITIL? (or other standards?)

A: While there is considerable overlap between these models, frameworks, and best practices, they are different from each other and family used for different purposes. People who ask this question come from one (or both) of of cannibals, two camps: They're just totally unfamiliar with CMMI (and/or the others), and are asking innocently enough, and/or They just look at CMMI (and the others) as some standard they need to comply with, and family not as something that can make a positive difference in the operations of business. (We've found that last type common among government contracting officers.) Let's address a question of my ambition a teacher, standards first. The process areas and the practices within them are not intended on being or replacing any technical standard for doing anything. Some process areas that share names with other familiar activities have volumes of standards already written for how to perform those activities. Family Folklore! Many of the engineering-oriented process areas come immediately to military essays on accountability mind such as Configuration Management and Requirements Development. And this matter brings up a very important, but often neglected, fact about CMMI: it is *not* a standard for technical activities.

And, for whatever CMMI *is* supposed to be used for, it does *not* a prescribe how to folklore essay do anything in it. People who do not understand how we can try to get away with saying that CMMI isn't prescriptive and essays on accountability doesn't represent a technical standard are simply not fully informed -- or worse -- have been misinformed about CMMI. We'd really love an opportunity to set the record straight. CMMI is about improving management processes associated with developing and delivering technical products and services. CMMI is not about the technical processes needed to actually do the developing and delivering.

The CMMI process areas are what the authors believe to be important elements that contribute to a systematic ability to affect process improvement in and among (the management of) those technical process and folklore practices that actually develop and us presidential deliver the products and services. In essence, CMMI's process areas are the things needed for process improvement of technical activities, not the activities themselves. What CMMI is saying is: In order to improve your processes, you need to manage your requirements, risks and configurations; you need to family plan, monitor and control your projects; you need to measure and analyze the us presidential scholar essays, output of your efforts; you need to actually pay attention to the performance of your project to how well they follow processes and to whether your processes are working out for you. CMMI then says: if you really want to get good at these things you'd have be making a focused effort on your processes, you'd have standardized process assets, an organization-wide training program and a formality to your technical activities that might otherwise be left to fend for themselves. For the true process zeal: you'd be able to quantify the performance of your projects and processes and you'd be able improve them by focusing on folklore what numbers tell you to focus on, not just what people gripe about the most. CMMI also says that if you're going to on accountability do a process, you should have a policy for doing it, a plan for folklore essay it, resources, assignments, process-level training, stakeholder involvement, and other activities to make them stick. If process improvement is what you want, it only should about, makes sense, doesn't it? (The types of activities mentioned here are from the process areas and generic practices, in case they weren't familiar to you.)

You see, CMMI has a number of family folklore essay, process areas that are needed for what should i write essay about technical activities, but their presence in CMMI is because these process are also needed for family essay process engineering just as much as they are needed for technical engineering. SO, if we disassemble a process area into on nelson mandela's its purpose and goals in light of the above understanding we will see that the purpose and goals are not oriented at technical activities, they're oriented towards process improvement activities. We can hope that in essay, this context, the matter of whether CMMI is a technical standard can be laid to rest, and, we hope that we bring a deeper appreciation for how CMMI works. With that, we can simply explain that ISO/TL 9000 and scholar ITIL have a different focus than CMMI, and just like CMMI has process engineering processes that sound similar to technical engineering processes, these other bodies of knowledge also have their similar-sounding activities that are needed and relevant for the purpose they each represent. Since this isn't a FAQ about ISO/TL 9000 or ITIL, we hope it's enough of an answer for now to explain that wherever CMMI has a practice that seems like it's also in another body, CMMI does not innately conflict with the family, others. there are ways of implementing CMMI that can make them all work well. however, an organization can go about implementing any practice under the us presidential scholar essays, sun that could conflict with some other practice, CMMI or otherwise, but it would not be because of anything in CMMI. Aren't CMMI and Agile / Kanban / Lean methods at opposite ends of the spectrum? A: Not at all. We've got A LOT of essay, content on this subject! Instead of being very redundant by putting something here, please check out the blog on that topic, and mandela's the SEI's Technical Note, CMMI or Agile: Why Not Embrace Both! . How are CMMI and SOX (SarBox / Sarbanes-Oxley) Related? A: They're not. Well. at least not in folklore essay, the way that many people think they might be.

See, many people think that because the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of scholar, 2002 (which we'll just call SarBox) frequently involves business process and family folklore IT infrastructure and related systems, that it involves CMMI. But, in actually, the connection to CMMI is rather weak and always is on accountability, a function of the essay, organization's intentional effort to my ambition in life is to become a teacher connect the two. SEI / CMMI Institute FAQs. Why is folklore, CMMI Being Taken Out of the essays life, SEI? A: CMMI and its predecessors have been worked on by SEI for over 25 years. Much of it was funded by family, the US Department of Defense (DOD).

The DOD stopped funding CMMI several years ago. However, SEI is still an FFRDC (see here) funded by of cannibals montaigne, DOD. Folklore! In part, for SEI to continue research development (RD) on CMMI, some of the support for essays of cannibals that effort would be from money paid to the SEI by DOD for other RD. In 2012 the folklore, DOD decided that it wanted the SEI to focus all of its resources on on accountability evolving other technologies more urgent to DOD than CMMI and that the family essay, CMMI is mature enough to in life is to become support itself. So, instead of dropping CMMI entirely, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) is creating the CMMI Institute to operate CMMI (and People-CMM and a few other things, eventually). CMMI Institute will be able to evolve CMMI in directions independent of the path it was on while within SEI. Who Will Operate the CMMI. A: CMMI will continue to be owned and operated by Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) through a start-up entity is created in 2012 called the CMMI Institute which will formally assume operation of CMMI on family folklore essay 1 January 2013 . This entity will be able to become a teacher essay be more market-focused and industry-driven.

Research will continue, but the research will be more goal-oriented, and, CMMI Institute will operate more like a commercial business than an academic think-tank. The CMMI Institute will have to be self-sustaining since it won't have an automatic funding line from family folklore essay CMU (at least not a significant one) and SEI will not be supporting it. What Will Happen to CMMI? Will CMMI Continue to on nelson mandela's be Supported? A: CMMI will continue to be supported by CMMI Institute. CMMI Institute will continue to folklore support existing users while also orienting CMMI towards emerging market-driven needs. We can expect CMMI and its related products and services (such as appraisals) to military on accountability be evolved in directions that make sense to meet many market segments and to appeal to audiences more broadly than the RD required of the SEI. We can also expect changes (improvements) in the variety of appraisals, the quality/qualifications of family folklore essay, instructors and appraisers and even possible new designations for appraisals, appraisal results, and appraisers. Will CMMI Change? What's the essays of cannibals, Future of CMMI?

A: CMMI will stay the family, same for on nelson mandela's a while, but when it changes, anything is possible. While the current version and architecture of CMMI may continue to evolve along its current trajectory, this is only one possibility. When not directed towards DOD RD, CMMI can evolve along many new paths. For example, CMMI can branch so that there are different versions for different markets. It could split-up so that there are subsets that are re-packaged for folklore essay different uses/users. On Accountability! Different types of appraisals can be created to meet demands not suitably addressed by versions through v1.3 of CMMI and the appraisal methods.

Imagine, for example, versions of CMMI and of appraisals that focus on ongoing improvement in bottom-line performance, or versions that meet the specific targeted needs of start-ups and their venture backers. Imagine appraisers and consultants specifically qualified to work with lean, agile, start-ups, enterprise, operational services, technical debt, or DevOps, each with a version of CMMI, training, and appraisals suited specifically to their business and without the ambiguity currently experienced with only one version of everything for everyone.. These are the sorts of things possible now that were not available before. Will Appraisal Results Continue to Be Valid Once SEI No Longer Runs CMMI? A: Appraisal results achieved while CMMI was still under the SEI will still be valid under the CMMI Institute. Family! Appraisal results will expire as per their original expiration dates. Of Cannibals Montaigne! Appraisals performed after CMMI Institute assumed responsibility for CMMI will follow the same expiration rules per the version of the appraisal performed. Changes to appraisals, appraisal methods, appraisal results, and expiration will be made and essay deployed in a manner consistent with the needs of the market and ordinary refresh and release processes. It should be noted that SEI does not own the intellectual property or related assets of my ambition become essay, CMMI, Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) owns them. Therefore, the backing of CMMI and the appraisals has been and will continue to family essay be from should i write about CMU. What Will Happen to family folklore Conferences and other CMMI-oriented Events Once Sponsored by SEI?

A: SEI will continue to essays on nelson mandela's conduct and essay sponsor its own events and my ambition is to essay conferences, but they will no longer include CMMI as a focus. Just as for other events and conference, CMMI can't be kept out of the essay, public discourse and use, and, therefore, it's likely that conference/event content within an SEI activity would reference CMMI, SEI will not sponsor CMMI-specific events after 1 January 2013. CMMI Institute will be responsible for its own choice of sponsoring and supporting CMMI events and essays on nelson mandela's conferences. While traditional annual CMMI-oriented events may continue to be run, it's also possible that there will be smaller, more frequent CMMI-oriented events that are more targeted either geographically or by market, or both. Will We Still Be Able to family folklore essay Work with Our Current SEI Partner? A: All current SEI Partners in good standing will be offered the opportunity to have their licenses continue to oeprated under CMMI Institute. In fact, since the CMMI intellectual property belongs to Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), the licenses are between the Partners and CMU, not SEI. Military! Other than changes to references to SEI and website URLs, the change of relationship between the essay, Partners and CMMI Institute will not change the relationship between you and web 2.0 your Partners. Isn't this just a cash cow for the SEI (now CMMI Institute)? A: Um, well, yeah. but as far as the SEI goes, they're just, in effect, a US Department of Defense (DOD) contractor in all this. You see, the DOD put out an RFP for some university-based research/think-tank to come up with a solution to family essay the problem of abysmal performance of my ambition in life a teacher essay, software projects.

The SEI turned in the winning proposal and folklore essay was awarded the contract for a Federally-Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC). FFRDCs are typically established, academic, not-for-profit organizations whose outputs are the my ambition is to become a teacher, intellectual property of the researchers' employers but freely distributed within the government and anyone the government says can use it. And so, Carnegie Mellon University's Software Engineering Institute (SEI) beat out the University of Maryland in the competition to be the FFRDC to solve the problem. The DOD liked CMU's proposed CMM (for software) approach for improving the quality, cost, and schedule fidelity of software development more than they liked U of M's Goal-Question-Metric approach. Family Folklore! As a total aside, we find it rather a good chuckle that CMU now also teaches GQM! But, we digress. SEI was mandated to work on of cannibals and continuously improve the field and body of family essay, knowledge for software management and engineering. That's how we now have CMMI v1.3 and a bevy of other process, engineering and management tools, models, courses, etc., where we once started out with just CMM for software. So the bottom line is: Except for when companies *choose* to hire SEI for training or consulting, the SEI does not actually make money on companies who *use* CMMI. Essays! The majority of materials are free to use because they were developed with taxpayer money, and those things that aren't free are cost-recovery for administration of folklore, everyone using SEI services and licensed products. Let's be clear about thesis web 2.0 something: organizations do not need SEI to family folklore improve their processes, and if companies want to essays avoid what they perceive as high costs, they can invest a relatively small amount to grow their own internal CMMI and SCAMPI wherewithal.

What makes SEI the family, authority on what are best practices in software? A: Lest you think SEI is entirely made-up of ivory-tower academic pinheads, you'd be surprised to learn that SEI is still a university research institute, and scholar as such is as worried as any business or school would be about their credibility, keeping their knowledge-base up-to-date with the latest research, techniques, technology and tools. Besides that, the vast majority of people who work on the CMMI come from industry, not academia. The list of contributors and reviewers is as impressive as it is long. Folklore Essay! While even we concede that the list is a bit heavy with companies who are Federal contractors and companies who can be described as large, deep-pocketed organizations with plenty of ability to absorb overhead, if we want to be fair, we should note that such companies are not alone, and, that they were among the essays, few companies who showed any interest when things got kicked off. As CMMI adoption and exposure increased, so did participation and inclusion of smaller companies. It's not so much, then, that SEI is the authority, it's the collection of expert software practitioners from across the business spectrum who are the authority. The SEI just makes it possible for these people to get together and centralized. The question of family folklore essay, whether or not there are actual *best* practices is out of scope for this FAQ. Us Presidential Scholar! Let's just agree that there may have been a better term than best for the collection of practices they put together. Do the Lead Appraisers work for the SEI?

A: Not all of them. In fact, only a few do. The rest are licensed to appraise through Partners (once known as Transition Partners), and some of them are also very part time Independent Consultants. CMMI Institute does, however, administer and train people to be certified to take leadership roles and responsibilities for leading appraisals and family essay delivering Introduction to CMMI instruction. In particular, CMMI Institute controls very closely how and when it allows people to become SCAMPI Lead Appraisers. Even still, while the cadre of essays on nelson mandela's life, people with the authority to observe candidate Lead Appraisers on family folklore essay behalf of the military essays on accountability, SEI CMMI Institute is small, only a few of them are actually CMMI Institute employees. The rest are Independent Consultants who work very closely with the CMMI Institute. What's a Transition Partner? What's the Partner Network? A: Transition Partner is the folklore essay, name previously used for companies/organizations in the SEI's Partner Network.

In 2006, the name given to this program (and to these organizations) was changed from Transition Partner to us presidential scholar essays Partner Network . These are organizations (companies, individuals) who holds a license from the SEI and/or CMMI Institute to use SEI materials and perform official activities which are registered with the SEI and/or CMMI Institute such as formal, reported SCAMPIs and family folklore essay training. (NOTE: Some Partners still provide non-CMMI services and use non-CMMI materials that are still held within the SEI and have not (yet, if ever) ported over to the CMMI Institute with CMMI in December 2012.) The original term Transition Partner comes from the concept of companies who are out in is to essay, the field as SEI's partners helping other organizations transition to using CMMI. Family Folklore Essay! Seriously, though, if you're still using or hearing the term Transition Partner, it's so totally last decade. All individuals wanting to be certified to do things using SEI content in essays of cannibals, any way must be sponsored through a Partner and pay a licensing fee for each credential they want to hold. How do we report concerns about ethics, conflicts of interest, and/or compliance? A: Waste, Fraud, Abuse, and Noncompliance with Policies Harms Everyone. If you have concerns about the truth behind an folklore organization's rating, or about the ethics, compliance or conflict-of-interest of a consultant or appraiser, we strongly encourage you to report these concerns to the SEI. You may also want to review the thesis, SEI's Partner policies, here, as well to ensure your concern is properly supported. All authorized and licensed individuals and organizations must operate through a Partner, so all investigations will include an inquiry to the Partner. The Ethics and Compliance site is here, there you can also see other information on expectations and how to report your concerns. The US Hotline Phone Number (24/7/365) is: 1-877-217-6316, and. The direct reporting email address for Ethics and Compliance concerns is: ethics-compliance-reporting@cmmiinstitute.com.

We sincerely hope you never have to use any of folklore essay, them, but if you do, we're very sorry. And, we hope you are undeterred from your process improvement aspirations. Can individuals be Certified or carry any other CMMI rating or special designation? authorized and/or certified as Instructors, Appraisers, and of cannibals montaigne other designations, licensed partners to be able to folklore use SEI intellectual property and to register appraisals with the SEI, Independent Consultantsof the what i write, CMMI Institute (i.e., part time or volunteer employees), eligible to be appraisal team members by taking the folklore, licensed Introduction to CMMI and military on accountability registering in the SEI's appraisal system, and other credentials that are evolving over time, and non-CMMI credentials as well. But there are no designations conferred on individuals specific to family CMMI. So, if an organization is rated a Maturity Level X, individuals from that organization aren't imbued with their own crown of Maturity Level X. Essays On Accountability! Anyone claiming something like that (we've seen this on many resumes) would represent a gross misunderstanding by the individual and/or a terrible lack of communication/training by the organization. Also, taking Introduction to CMMI , or even the essay, next class, Intermediate Concepts of CMMI , does not designate a person as a certified or authorized CMMI consultant. (We've seen that too.) Currently, there are no SEI-authorized Certified CMMI Consultant designations whatsoever, but that may be changing over the next few years. Is there required training to do CMMI?

A: That depends on what you want to accomplish. To just implement CMMI? None whatsoever. An organization can pick up the technical report that *is* the CMMI, read it, and start to implement it. Essays Mandela's! SEI and CMMI Institute require no training to do that. To be completely blunt, however, we have not found a single company yet who could take this layman's approach and make it work for them -- whether to get through a SCAMPI or just realize improvements. There are just some things that a few hours with someone willing and folklore essay qualified to explain everything -- at least as far as using the model effectively and/or getting to/through a SCAMPI is concerned -- to essays make a world of difference between success and disillusionment. (Entinex -- sponsor of this site -- does that in a 4-hour session we call our Crash Course.) To be on a SCAMPI team, a prerequisite is the Introduction to folklore essay CMMI course. Then, in preparation for the SCAMPI itself, team members receive Appraisal Team Training from the Lead Appraiser (or an what essay alternative qualified individual) prior to the appraisal -- but this is part of the family folklore essay, appraisal process and not training that must be delivered by CMMI Institute or a Partner. To be an Introduction to a teacher essay CMMI Instructor, one also needs Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or two CMMI for Practitioners courses, the CMMI Instructor Training course and essay then be observed delivering the course before becoming authorized to web 2.0 deliver it on one's own. To be a Lead Appraiser, one needs Introduction to CMMI , Intermediate Concepts of CMMI or two CMMI for Practitioners courses, to participate as a team member on two SCAMPI appraisals, the SCAMPI Lead Appraiser course and also to be observed leading a SCAMPI appraisal. CMMI for Services has additional requirements for family folklore essay becoming an instructor.

High Maturity Lead Appraisers (HMLAs) require additional coursework and on accountability exams. Applicants for all authorized or certified roles will undergo a resume review of experience and qualifications in appropriate areas consistent with the designation they are pursuing. Who can provide CMMI-related training? A: The CMMI Institute itself, and people certified by the CMMI Institute *and* working through a Partner can deliver any training they are authorized to deliver -- if the expectation is essay, that there will be some official registration of the that training event. If there is no such expectation of a Certificate of Completion, or, if there is no intention of using the training as a pre-requisite to future activities, the training is what essay, not controlled by the CMMI Institute since they would never know about it. Be sure to be clear with whoever you are receiving the training from about their authority to deliver the expected outcome.

There are several accounts of companies selling CMMI Training that are not officially licensed events and therefore lack the credentials to be registered with the family folklore essay, CMMI Institute as ever having taken place. What sort of CMMI-related training is there? A: The following are the basic CMMI courses. The CMMI Institute also adds specialized courses all the time. Follow this link for the SEI's list of courses:

Introduction to CMMI , and various 1-day supplement courses for each constellation, Intermediate Concepts of CMMI CMMI for Practitioners Understanding CMMI High Maturity Practices CMMI Instructor Training SCAMPI Lead Appraiser Training SCAMPI B and C Team Leader Training. How can we learn about the appraisal process? A: For that we have some bad news. There are only three ways to essays learn about the appraisal process, and one of them is not recommended, and another requires a lot of commitment: Download the Appraisal Requirements for CMMI and the Method Definition Document, and study them. Go through all the training requirements of family, becoming a Lead Appraiser. Should Essay! Hire someone who has done #2 to explain it you. Specific Model Content FAQs. What is the exact difference between GP 2.8 and GP 2.9?

A: It can be confusing. Family! We've found it's especially confusing to people / organizations who see CMMI as being compliance -driven. Mostly, because they don't see the essays of cannibals montaigne, difference between monitoring and controlling the family, process and objectively evaluating the process. And, part of it is due to the fact that these two phrases are incomplete. To understand these two generic practices requires that we read the of cannibals montaigne, complete practice statement, not just the folklore essay, title of the practice (which is good advice for any practice!) as we spell it out essays on accountability, here. GP 2.8 is Monitor and control the process against the plan for performing the process and take appropriate corrective action . [Emphasis added.] In other words, GP 2.8 is tied to GP 2.2, Establish and essay maintain the plan for performing the process. We see many people / organizations confusing (or equating) the in life is to become a teacher, plan for performing the process with the process for performing the process. The plan addresses the resources, timing, tasks, and so forth, for seeing that the process *will* get done at the project level, not necessarily *how* it will get done.

The plan is merely knowing how the process will be assured of getting done , not necessarily and not only family folklore essay, about getting done right . My Ambition Is To A Teacher Essay! Sure, it's common to find the folklore, process embedded in or referenced by the plan, but that doesn't eliminate the distinction between the plan(s) and what should i write essay about the process(es). Effectively, you can monitor and control the process just as you would (and when you would) be monitoring and controlling activities of the project. Family Essay! You could even be tracking them using similar metrics such as when did it happen, what happened, how many times did it happen, did it happen on time, did it use the essays, expected resources, etc. Family Folklore! And, that's the should i write my narrative essay, real distinction between GP 2.8 and GP 2.9. GP 2.9 is family folklore, Objectively evaluate adherence of the process against its process description, standards, and procedures, and address noncompliance. That focus is clearly on the *how* of the process and whether the on nelson mandela's life, *how* was done as expected. Family Folklore Essay! An organization may execute a process according to its plan, but do so in a way entirely not according to the process (even in a good way), and conversely, the my ambition in life essay, process could be performed exactly according to the process expectation, but done entirely late, or taking too long, or not by the right people.

Hence, the family folklore essay, distinct activities of checking that the military on accountability, process was done *both* according to plan, *and* as expected to be done. Thanks to Gino Tudor for asking this question! Why is Requirements Development (RD) in Maturity Level 3, and Requirements Management (REQM) in family folklore, Maturity Level 2? A: We've received variations on this question often enought that we might as well put the answer on this site. GP 2.10 Review Status with Higher Level Management seems like it would be satisfied by meeting SP 1.6 and 1.7 in PMC but that doesn't seem to meet the institutionalization. Us Presidential Scholar! Would the OPF and OPD SPs also need to be met to meet GP 2.10? A: PMC is essay, project-level statuses with whomever may be relevant to a project to essays of cannibals be part of this statusing. Family Essay! Whereas GP2.10 is process-oriented review of process performance with a level of management with the authority to affect process changes resulting from the review of process performance. CMM, CMMI, and essays on nelson mandela's life SCAMPI are ® registered in the U.S. Family Folklore Essay! Patent and. Trademark Office by Carnegie Mellon University.

All other content Entinex, Inc. (except where noted) The content herein, in part or in whole, may not be used or reproduced without explicit prior approval from Entinex, Inc. (Just ask, we'll probably let you use it.) Disclaimer: The opinions expressed here are the authors' and contributors' and do not express a position on the subject from the become a teacher, Software Engineering Institute (SEI), CMMI Institute, Clear Model Institute, Carnegie Mellon University or any organization or Partner affiliated with the SEI, CMMI Institute, Clear Model Institute, or Carnegie Mellon University. Most recent notable update: : 26 January 2014. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification. About these ads: The ads that appear below DO NOT reflect an endorsement, recommendation, or suggestion by essay, the authors, editors or contributors to this CMMIFAQ, the SEI, or CMMI Institute. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification. PLEASE : Let us know if you have any questions, see any errors, or need further clarification.

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Logistics Grads Suit Up for the Future. December 15, 2013 | Justine Brown. Universities and corporations are working together to arm logistics graduates with the skills they need to move from the classroom to the conference room. With global trade likely to rise more than threefold to $27 trillion by 2030, logistics professionals are in high demand, according to Winning the Talent Race , a report by professional services firm PwC. In fact, the folklore essay, U.S. logistics sector is expected to create more than one million job openings between 2013 and 2016, according to the U.S. In Life Is To Become A Teacher Essay. Department of Labor. Yet a significant gap exists between the skills logistics companies need, and those today's college graduates bring to family essay the table. The success of companies such as Walmart demonstrates the growing importance of supply chain and logistics, but education has not kept up with this shift, says Raymond Boykin, Ph.D., a member of my ambition is to become a teacher essay Prince George, Va.-based Commonwealth Center for Advanced Logistics Systems (CCALS). Many schools aren't educating students about the family folklore essay, importance of logistics in should essay about, today's global economy. Many employees in the transport sector have medium or low qualification levels, according to the PwC report, and the sector's need for better-educated workers is increasing.

Ensuring enough skilled candidates are availablealong with suitable advancement options for family folklore essay talented staffwon't be easy, but it is critical to future success, says the report. More training and learning opportunities in the transportation and logistics sector are needed. What Should I Write. Such programs could help increase the available labor pool. But generating more skilled workers is not solely an education issue. Schools and industry need to work together to make a difference, says John Taylor, associate professor and chair of the department of family marketing and thesis supply chain management at Wayne State University's School of Business Administration in Detroit.

Educational institutions can't do it alone. They need to work closely with businesses to folklore essay understand their issues and needs. Building the new logistics workforce is truly a team effort. Companies, schools, governments, and nonprofits must do more to identify, recruit, train, and essays montaigne employ skilled workers, says Dr. Sime Curkovic, professor of supply chain management at Western Michigan University (WMU) in Kalamazoo, and the director of the integrated supply management program. Manufacturers who reach out to local high schools, vocational schools, community colleges, and universities help build relationships with school leaders and instructors, Curkovic adds. This outreach also helps companies shape training programs to ensure they teach relevant skills to future workers. An array of collaborative logistics education programsinvolving public schools, universities, government agencies, and corporationsalready exists in the United States. For example, Purdue University in West Lafayette, Ind., and Ivy Tech Community College in Carmel, Ind., recently received nearly $900,000 in grants to address the folklore, skills gap and technical demands in essays, Indiana's supply chain, logistics, and manufacturing operations workforce.

Through the project, the family folklore essay, schools will provide a diverse population of college students with a direct pathway for earning both their associate's and bachelor's degrees in the field of technology-based logistics. The grants will also fund projects such as working directly with Indiana's K-12 schools to inform students about educational and career opportunities in logistics; developing curricula for Ivy Tech and my ambition is to become a teacher Purdue; and implementing an outreach and recruitment program to encourage Ivy Tech associate's degree students to family continue their education. Other universities are focusing on introducing project-based work and internship opportunities specifically aimed at providing students with real-world logistics experiences. At WMU, several corporations provide students with hands-on lean manufacturing projects for us presidential scholar essays coursework and training. The university has been working closely with industry for five years, and folklore essay students have completed more than 100 projects. For example, John Deere is pursuing a division-wide Build-To-Demand order fulfillment initiative, and will use a group of WMU students to measure the Manufacturing Critical-path Time. The partnership with industry came about because WMU met with businesses, and saw the demand, says Curkovic. Montaigne. Kalamazoo is not a huge geographic area, but it is surrounded by many companies that recruit heavily from our supply chain program. The industry representatives want to ensure that students graduate with an understanding of key logistics challenges, and are prepared to begin work at a company knowing how to do things better, faster, and folklore cheaper. We created a process management class, and have taken on more industry projects, Curkovic adds.

We are no longer just talking about these concepts in montaigne, the classroomwe are applying them in the workplace. One WMU project involved Portage, Mich.-based Mann-Hummel USA, an original equipment supplier to the international automotive and essay mechanical engineering industries. The company was experiencing huge growth, and running out of mandela's material storage space at its Portage production facility. To manage this growth, Mann-Hummel was using an off-site warehousing strategy incorporating just-in-time Lean methods such as kitting, kanban, and regular milk runs to bring materials to the plant. Folklore. This strategy was working well for the company, but it offered room for us presidential scholar improvement. A group of WMU students, led by family, Curkovic, collaborated with Mann-Hummel to define a set of plastic hand totes that could be employed to store 250-plus raw materials the become essay, company uses in essay, production. The project included measuring repackaging times and costs, determining which hand totes worked best for each raw material, and obtaining a quote from a product manufacturer for the estimated number of containers necessary to implement the military, hand tote system. Most students don't have work experience to include on their resume when they graduate, but collaborative projects open doors for them to gain that experience, says Curkovic.

And many companies evaluate students as potential future employees. Another WMU project involved Battle Creek, Mich.-based food manufacturer Kellogg's Direct Store Delivery (DSD) Solution Center, a facility that assists with supply chain process issues. The solution center's analysts mainly focus on family essay, solving day-to-day issues with the delivery of Kellogg's snack products. It is a sector of the in life, company that is vital as Kellogg's continues to acquire more business. Delivery refusals, driver delays, and order status are frequent problems that DSD Solution Center analysts must resolve. The WMU team was asked to find opportunities for process improvement, and time and folklore cost savings. After some research and hands-on experience in the solution center, the essays, WMU team identified both simple and family folklore essay complex solutions, including a new call center phone system, a truck driver instruction sheet, additional staff, integrated information database systems, and eliminating static routes. Building Beneficial Relationships. Wayne State University's School of Business Administration is currently collaborating with Detroit automaker General Motors to introduce students to essays the issues and challenges involved in essay, producing vehicles.

For the Wayne State University/General Motors Supply Chain Case Competitionwhich recently completed its third yearbusiness students from on nelson mandela's life across the family folklore essay, country came to thesis Detroit for an in-depth look at the supply chain systems that support the automotive industry. The students examined topics such as component purchasing strategy, global vs. domestic sourcing, risk management, and battery production locations. The competition presents an essay, opportunity to showcase Southeast Michigan's automotive industry and supply chain management careers, as well as provide students an outstanding real-world educational experience, says Taylor. Additionally, students were able to interview with automotive companies, and participate in several panel sessions on supply chain careers. The auto industry has a huge need for thesis students, he adds.

We have to make sure we are getting the best students in front of industry leaders to ensure those matches happen. At Ohio State University in Columbus, the Fisher College of Business works with several companies as part of folklore essay its supply chain management program. The college hosts both a global supply chain forumwhich consists of of cannibals 12 companies that help guide research and curriculumand the Center for family folklore Operational Excellence, which has 38 member companies and is instrumental in shaping the school's supply chain curriculum. The college also operates a successful internship program. We seek industry guidance in devising our curriculum and executing our programs, says Dr. Thomas J. Goldsby, professor of logistics at Ohio State University. We plug in to industry any way we can, whether it's inviting guest speakers to in life is to become a teacher essay campus or through class projects. These experiences allow students to learn about folklore business and the real logistics challenges companies face. Logistics academics naturally focus more on the real problems businesses are trying to address than educators in other industries do.

We are fortunate to on accountability be in a field that has a good working relationship with industry, Goldsby says. Businesses are interested in family, our curriculum and the research we do on campus, and essays mandela's life they want to family folklore essay be part of both. Other types of organizations are also working to my narrative about bridge the talent gap between logistics companies and educational institutions. CCALS, for example, is a collaborative effort between business, government, and family folklore several Virginia universities. Formed in December 2012, CCALS strives to improve the technological, mechanical, and scholar human factors that enable logistics.

Several companies and government entities bring their supply chain challenges to CCALS, share the costs associated with lab testing, then own the solution. Our goal is to work together on family folklore essay, solving industry issues such as supply chain risk and disruption, distribution and transportation networks, and logistics security and information technology systems, says Boykin. But we also seek to develop talent, so when a participating company needs employees with specific skill sets, they know where to find them. CCALS brings universities and companies together, he adds. The companies inform the universities as to what skill sets they need from graduates, and the universities adjust to meet those needs. Another organization working to bridge the logistics talent gap is the Transportation Club of Atlanta, which recently launched a program to provide paid internships for students majoring in logistics at Clayton State, Georgia Southern, Georgia Tech, or Kennesaw State. Companies including Unisource, Coca-Cola, Home Depot, and Rubbermaid have signed on to participate in the summer 2014 program. Employment is one of the us presidential essays, biggest problems in Georgia, notes Jeremy Estep, president of the Transportation Club of Atlanta. Family. Many organizations want to hire students, but don't have the resources to should i write about go out to family folklore the universities to my ambition in life a teacher essay recruit.

Our goal is to act as an intermediary, and facilitate that process. The program is a win-win, Estep notes. Essay. The companies win because they get transportation, logistics, and supply chain interns who want to be in this industry, he says. What My Narrative Essay. Companies are exposed to up-and-coming talent, and folklore can identify students with management potential, perhaps saving the expense of formally hiring someone who wouldn't have worked out. Logistics students win because they gain real-world industry experience, Estep adds. Essays On Nelson Mandela's Life. When these students graduate, they will be a hot commodity because they have both education and experience. Another aspect vital to the future of logistics is family folklore essay, raising the sector's profile in the education system. Many students are not aware of logistics and its potential as a career field, because many high school level career development programs do not include logistics and transportation. Part of WMU's program involves outreach to local high schools.

We introduce junior high and high school students to montaigne supply chain management through some classroom exercises, says Curkovic. CCALS offers a dual-enrollment program in which high school and community college students can take, and essay receive credit for, Virginia State logistics courses. We partner with four community colleges and six high schools, helping them integrate logistics education early by offering dual enrollment, says Boykin. It is important to introduce students to on nelson logistics before college, because by that point, many have already decided where they will focus their studies. On the other end of the spectrum, several universities are investing in continuing education and/or graduate programs to help logistics professionals keep up with changing industry demands. Family Folklore. For example, WMU recently launched an executive education program in which industry managers team with faculty, alumni, and current students to help solve real-world logistics challenges. In some cases, the university is thesis, finding this model financially beneficial. We ask logistics managers about their challenges, and family folklore whether we can help with specific projects, says Curkovic. The executive education projects have gone so well, some managers are willing to pay us with some of the scholar essays, cost savings we generate for them. We then use that revenue to build up more projects, sponsor student scholarships, or hire more faculty. Industry professionals often teach executive education and graduate-level logistics courses, allowing for further cross-pollination.

The logistics and supply chain sector gained a head start over other industries because collaboration is family folklore, ingrained in what should my narrative about, it, says Carole Bennett, M.B.A. director of program development and family folklore marketing at the Georgia Tech Supply Chain and Logistics Institute in Atlanta. Master Thesis. For example, professionals from Florence, Ky.-based logistics provider LeanCor teach the folklore essay, institute's professional certificate series classes. Schools with a tradition of working with industry will be better at my narrative essay producing students with the skill sets needed in folklore, the future, Bennett notes. Many universities and businesses claim the general population lacks awareness about essays on accountability logistics and how it touches every part of our lives. Corporate sourcing controversies, global supply chain disruptions, and well-known companies such as Walmart that thrive because they have mastered supply chain operations are raising awareness. The demand for logistics knowledge is enormous, because it will become a competitive advantage, says Boykin.

Many manufacturing companies are trying to family cut costs anywhere and everywhere they can, and they are beginning to see logistics and essays montaigne distribution as a source of low-hanging fruit. Supply chain students can help them identify those opportunities, he explains. Putting students to work in real-life logistics scenarios enables them to respond to industry needs and help identify solutions. By working together, education, industry, and other partners may help bridge the gap between what logistics companies need and the skills today's college graduates bring to family folklore the table. Building relationships with school leaders and instructors allows companies to help shape the logistics workforce of tomorrow.