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Athena: The Goddess as Depicted by Homer. Athena: The Goddess as Depicted by sieve analysis lab report Homer. The respect of the quiz show scandal, ancient Greeks to goddess Athena is sieve analysis lab report, unquestionable. She is depicted at the top of the Acropolis as a reminder that the ancient Greeks believed in essay conclusion equal opportunity between men and women. No less, their capital city of analysis, Athens was named after her. Known as the wisdom, war, and craft, she is also known for her good leadership as her special city is the birthplace of democracy. Moreover, this female deity – deemed to essay agree, be wise, not only rejected absolutely the restrictions that gender placed on her individuality, her persona has not betrayed her sex in the power struggles among gods and men. Need essay sample on Athena: The Goddess as Depicted by Homer ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page.
In the writings of Homer, he redress the balance, treats with a certain flippancy when personifying goddesses: Athena, marvelously faithful to her elect, full of intelligence, biased also and imperious, implacable and utterly devoid of sensibility; Hera, the jealous wife, acrimonious and cross-grained, but fascinating on occasion and even desirable when she cares to sieve lab report, take the trouble; and Aphrodite, an epitome of every physical charm, but cowardly, malicious, licentious and stupid into the bargain. In Homer’s Odyssey, the epic begins on Olympus and ends with the intervention of Athena, which makes peace between Odysseus and the kinsmen of the slaughtered Suitors. Action on earth is accompanied by Drug courts action, decision, and conflict in heaven, and gods and goddesses intervene in the human world. Sieve Analysis. While Odysseus is brought home and defended by the goddess Athena; without her help he could not leave Calypso in the beginning, nor slay the Suitors in the end. Thus, Homer portrays Athena as Odysseus#8217; special patron. The bond between them arises from the similarities of their natures; as the Goddess herself puts it in show Book 13: We both know tricks, since you are by far the best among all men in counsel and tales, but I among all the Gods have renown for wit (metis) and tricks (1.44). The Odyssey goes out of its way to identify the story like Athena was the analysis lab report, narrator of the story and, in doing so, signals both its concern with issues of gender and its finally conservative position on those issues.
Athena has a distinctive role in the Greek mythological tradition as a figure who resolves conflicts between male and essay agree, female powers. The resolutions she effects involve both the acknowledgment of female strength and the establishment of hierarchies in analysis which the female is subordinated to the male. The plot that Athena metaphorically weaves in critical thinking reading and writing concert with Odysseus supersedes Penelope#8217;s plot with the shroud, which, by sieve the time the Odyssey#8217;s narrative begins, has outlived its usefulness and has been exposed. As the goddess in charge of weaving, Athena is able to perform both the literal handicraft and the more metaphorical devising of plots much more successfully than any mortal. The Odyssey highlights her success as a plotter through the structure of its narrative. With its famously nonlinear plot, the poem establishes a distinction between the events that take place in its own narrative present, which are narrated by writing the Muses operating through the poet, and earlier events, which are narrated by human characters in sieve analysis lab report flashbacks within the poem. Response Essay. These earlier events include not only Penelope#8217;s temporary scheme to keep her Suitors at bay but also the entire history of Odysseus#8217; adventures between his departure from Troy and the end of his seven-year stay with Calypso, which is narrated by Odysseus himself in an extensive flashback spanning Books 9 through 12 of the poem (Murnaghan, 1995, p. Sieve Analysis Lab Report. 64). Odysseus, by summary essay all measures, was fortunate. Favored by Athena, he was able to reach home safely, his story recalled by Homer in the Odyssey. But other heroes of the Trojan War did not fare so well and, by the time Homer began his story of Odysseus#8217;s return to analysis lab report, Ithaca, Athena had already dispatched those warriors who had earned her animosity.
Those who had insulted the goddess by not offering thanks to her for victory were not allowed to writing for philosophy essays, reach home at all, but were subjected to sieve analysis lab report, bitter endings engineered by the enraged and vengeful goddess. To inflict maximum torture with maximum efficiency upon her enemies, Athena formed an unusual alliance with Poseidon, a god she never liked but whose power she respected, in order to annihilate the disrespectful warriors with raging sea storms, monstrous waves, treacherous shores, and shipwrecks (Hall, 1997, p. 189). Those heroes who acknowledged Athena#8217;s role in their victory, however, were allowed to return home. Odysseus risks not only his life but his virtue more than once in the course of his travels. Homer would never have suggested such a sentiment as #8220;Be good, sweet maid, and show scandal, let who will be clever.#8221; It is only the sieve, clever Odysseus who succeeds in being good and so returning to his wife. Odysseus#8217; cleverness may indeed strike us sometimes as being inconsistent with plain honesty, but Homer justifies him by giving him a god in his own image to guide him.
Athena directs not only his actions but those also of critical (2nd edition), his wife Penelope and his son Telemachus. She tells all parties what she thinks is good for them, and encourages Telemachus to sieve analysis lab report, find out for foundations critical thinking reading (2nd himself what news of his father he can. As she explains, a young man needs to see the world and meet difficulties for himself. In fact, Homer is analysis, rather fond of pointing out essay partially agree alternatives to make the rightness of a decision conspicuously clear. The Odyssey is a guide to ancient etiquette, a comedy of manners in which manners are not at odds with morals (Post, 1951, p. 15). After the sieve analysis lab report, council of the gods, Athena goes to Ithaca to essay partially agree, send Telemachus in search of his father, while Hermes goes to Calypso to order the release of Odysseus. At Ithaca, we see the sieve, troubles of Penelope and Drug courts, Telemachus that are caused by the many suitors who feast daily and threaten the estate with ruin. Telemachus might order his mother to analysis lab report, go home to her parents and take the essay agree, suitors with her, but conscience forbids him to lay constraint upon a free woman. Penelope must make her own decision; he can hold out for another year.
Not only the gods but the state is brought into the picture when Telemachus warns the suitors in public assembly that their violation of the lab report, rights of Odysseus as well as his own will be punished. The rest of Books 1-4 tells the story of summary response essay conclusion, his adventures at Pylos and Sparta as he seeks news of his father. Lab Report. The suitors plan to partially agree, slay him on analysis lab report his return, thus deepening the blackness of their guilt. Penelope#8217;s right to stay on in her husband#8217;s house as long as his death is not certain, or until she chooses to essays, leave of her own accord, is sieve lab report, recognized by Telemachus (Book 2.130-145). In the second half of the Odyssey, which recounts the recognitions of Odysseus by friend and writing, foe in Ithaca and lab report, the slaughter of the suitors, Athena is busily at work.
With her help a few righteous fight against many wicked and triumph. Homer uses her to effect the mutual recognition of Odysseus and Telemachus, which must not be allowed to compete with the great recognition of husband and wife after the slaying. Father and son are the nucleus of an intrigue against the suitors which requires the cooperation of Penelope for essay its success. She must propose the competition for her hand among the suitors that will enable Odysseus to get in position unexpectedly with his bow and analysis lab report, shoot them down helpless and trapped. Yet her part in the intrigue is carried out without any recognition on her part that her missing husband is at hand. Quiz Scandal Essay. Athena is sieve analysis, as useful in enabling Odysseus to remain unrecognized by his wife as in insuring his recognition by his son. Such a difference in technique, when observed, leaves no doubt that the author of the essay multiculturalism india, Odyssey was a great original genius, no matter how much material he may have taken from others (Post, 1951, p. 18). Athena is also useful in relieving Penelope and to some extent Odysseus of any criticism when their part in the tale is to cheat and deceive. Penelope#8217;s success in getting presents from the suitors by arraying herself in all her charms is due to a suggestion of Athena and receives the approval of Odysseus. Lab Report. It is an odd feature of the story that it should seem to be dangerous to Odysseus to be recognized by his wife, and that Athena should help him with his disguise and should make Penelope unobserving when he is recognized by the nurse Eurycleia who bathes him in multiculturalism his wife#8217;s presence. But it adds to our liking for the warmhearted and yearning Penelope that she should be unable to conceal her joy if she had once recognized her husband.
Homer and his audience liked their women sincere and simple, incapable of carrying on sieve analysis an intrigue. The scenes between Penelope and Odysseus in writing for philosophy disguise, in sieve analysis lab report which he keeps his role of beggar while she pours out her heart, thus add another to Homer#8217;s scenes of temptation by good women. Odysseus must be hard and cruel until the suitors are out of the way. All his wit and self-control are taxed. The function of Athena in enabling Penelope to assist her husband#8217;s plot while apparently not recognizing him has been mentioned. It is clear that Homer has reasons for postponing the recognition by Penelope. Son is loyal to father as a matter of course, and men may be expected to writing introductions essays, plot together against foes. Penelope had nothing to lose materially by a change of husbands. Even her son had been warned in a dream not to trust his mother to look after his interests when the time should come for her to marry again. Such suspicion seems unworthy of Penelope, but it is precisely the vulgarity of these suspicions that makes her actual conduct seem surprising in its nobility. Thus, Athena constantly interprets to Odysseus and Penelope their mutual roles, while father and sieve analysis, son speak freely together.
Homer gives his audience moral and political solutions and makes it final and authoritative by using Athena as deus ex machina, just as she is used in the political tragedies of Athens. For the first and only time she restrains, instead of inciting, Odysseus to action. She puts a stop to his pursuit of the kin of the suitors after he has won a battle with the help of his father Laertes and his son Telemachus, as well as his loyal supporters in the community. Here Athena appears for the first time among many as the representative of political unity in Greek literature. Possibly this scene inspired the pageant of the conclusion, tyrant Peisistratus, when he calmed the fears of his fleeing opponents by sending before him in a chariot a woman dressed and armed as Athena. Lab Report. She was declared to be Athena, introducing Peisistratus as her representative, urging the Athenians to receive him without misgiving. Presumably, the Athenians recognized the theatrical aspect of this piece of propaganda, but it was effective propaganda nevertheless. The sentiments with which we view a patriotic pageant are not necessarily false or misleading. Certainly, the Athenians approved of such representations of Athena in their theater, if we may judge by the number of her appearances in critical thinking (2nd extant drama.
Thus, Homer lays down a pattern not only for comedy, but for political tragedies that recount legendary history for purposes of propaganda for example Eumenides, Ion, Andromache, and sieve lab report, others. In Ion and Andromache, Euripides interwove the Drug courts, reunited family with his political plot. Only in New Comedy are these strands at last separated. So long did it take to throw off the clogging influence of Homer, who inserted the family within the framework of the state in the dull though statesmanlike ending of the Odyssey (Harsh, 1950). Athena#8217;s nature is true to her origins. Her unique combination of male and female traits makes her the ideal child for Zeus, one who resembles her father but does not threaten to sieve analysis lab report, displace him or to disturb the world order he controls. She is a warrior goddess who possesses the highly prized masculine qualities of strength and cunning in battle, but she lacks the brutality and irrationality of the male war god, Ares. Thus she is closely identified with civilization and with the scandal, victory of sieve, civilization over barbarism, as in the Greek victory over introductions essays the Persians (from the Greek perspective), commemorated in Athens in sieve analysis the temple of Athena Nike.
She is associated with the city as an institution and with civilized crafts, especially the male craft of shipbuilding and the female craft of weaving. How Athena#8217;s warrior identity is tempered by her femaleness can be seen in an anecdote about her birth, which forms the subject of the brief Homeric Hymn to Athena. Essay Partially. When Athena bursts forth from Zeus#8217; head fully armed and brandishing a spear, the gods are deeply alarmed and sieve analysis, the cosmos reels in horror until she strips her armor from her shoulders, at foundations critical (2nd which point Zeus rejoices (Burkert, 1985, 139-43). At the same time, Athena possesses none of the dangerous qualities typically associated with women – as in Odyssey in which the uncovering of the female body proves entirely reassuring and unseductive makes clear. Above all, Homer portrays goddess Athena as a virgin, who avoids the volatile realm of sexuality and the divided loyalties of marriage and motherhood. Although the Homer’s Odyssey has done much to indicate the importance of women to the functioning at home and to its preservation, women are notably absent from its concluding pageant. Sieve Analysis Lab Report. Even Penelope, who has contrived to preserve Odysseus#8217; household in his absence and who has helped to create the biological tie between Odysseus and his son, is essay multiculturalism india, partially hidden from view in the inner part of the house.
Instead, Odysseus has at his side the one female figure on whom a male hero can most surely depend: the lab report, goddess Athena, who devotes to his cause both her masculine ability as a fighter and her feminine skill as a weaver of plots. Burkert, W. (1985). Summary Response. Greek Religion, trans. J. Raffan. Cambridge, Mass: Oxford. Hall, Lee.
Athena: A Biography. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, Inc., 1997. Harsh, P. W. (1950). Sieve. Penelope and Odysseus in response essay conclusion Odyssey XIX, American Journal of Philology, 71, p. 1-21. Homer. (1990). Analysis. Odyssey, Penguin (paperback), 541 pp.
Murnaghan, Sheila. (1995). The Plan of Athena. The Distaff Side: Representing the Female in Homer#8217;s Odyssey. Ed. Beth Cohen. New York: Oxford University Press. Post, L. A. (1951).
From Homer to Menander: Forces in Greek Poetic Fiction. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
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SIEVE ANALYSIS OF FINE AND COARSE …
Sample Essay Responses and analysis lab report, Rater Commentary for the Argument Task. The sample essays that follow were written in response to the prompt that appears below . Essay. The rater commentary that follows each sample essay explains how the lab report, response meets the criteria for that score. For a more complete understanding of the criteria for each score point, see the Drug courts, Analyze an Argument Scoring Guide. In surveys Mason City residents rank water sports (swimming, boating and sieve lab report, fishing) among their favorite recreational activities. The Mason River flowing through the city is rarely used for these pursuits, however, and the city park department devotes little of its budget to maintaining riverside recreational facilities. For years there have been complaints from residents about the Drug courts, quality of the river's water and lab report, the river's smell. In response, the state has recently announced plans to clean up Mason River. Use of the river for water sports is therefore sure to quiz show, increase. The city government should for that reason devote more money in this year's budget to riverside recreational facilities.
Write a response in which you examine the stated and/or unstated assumptions of the sieve, argument. Be sure to explain how the argument depends on the assumptions and what the implications are if the summary essay, assumptions prove unwarranted. Note: All responses are reproduced exactly as written, including errors, misspellings, etc., if any. While it may be true that the Mason City government ought to devote more money to riverside recreational facilities, this author's argument does not make a cogent case for increased resources based on river use. It is analysis easy to understand why city residents would want a cleaner river, but this argument is rife with holes and assumptions, and thus, not strong enough to lead to increased funding. Citing surveys of city residents, the author reports city resident's love of water sports. It is not clear, however, the scope and validity of introductions essays, that survey.
For example, the survey could have asked residents if they prefer using the river for water sports or would like to see a hydroelectric dam built, which may have swayed residents toward river sports. The sample may not have been representative of city residents, asking only sieve those residents who live upon the river. The survey may have been 10 pages long, with 2 questions dedicated to river sports. Quiz Scandal Essay. We just do not know. Unless the survey is fully representative, valid, and reliable, it can not be used to effectively back the author's argument. Additionally, the author implies that residents do not use the river for swimming, boating, and fishing, despite their professed interest, because the water is sieve analysis polluted and smelly.
While a polluted, smelly river would likely cut down on river sports, a concrete connection between the resident's lack of quiz show scandal essay, river use and the river's current state is not effectively made. Though there have been complaints, we do not know if there have been numerous complaints from a wide range of people, or perhaps from analysis one or two individuals who made numerous complaints. Partially Agree. To strengthen his/her argument, the author would benefit from implementing a normed survey asking a wide range of residents why they do not currently use the river. Building upon the implication that residents do not use the river due to the quality of the river's water and the smell, the author suggests that a river clean up will result in increased river usage. If the river's water quality and analysis lab report, smell result from problems which can be cleaned, this may be true. For example, if the decreased water quality and writing for philosophy, aroma is caused by pollution by lab report factories along the river, this conceivably could be remedied. But if the quality and aroma results from the natural mineral deposits in the water or surrounding rock, this may not be true.
There are some bodies of essay india, water which emit a strong smell of sulphur due to the geography of the area. Sieve Analysis. This is not something likely to be afffected by essay a clean-up. Consequently, a river clean up may have no impact upon river usage. Regardless of whether the river's quality is able to be improved or not, the author does not effectively show a connection between water quality and river usage. A clean, beautiful, safe river often adds to a city's property values, leads to increased tourism and sieve analysis lab report, revenue from conclusion those who come to sieve lab report, take advantage of the river, and a better overall quality of life for residents. For these reasons, city government may decide to response conclusion, invest in improving riverside recreational facilities. However, this author's argument is not likely significantly persuade the sieve analysis lab report, city goverment to response, allocate increased funding. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 6. This insightful response identifies important assumptions and thoroughly examines their implications.
The essay shows that the proposal to sieve lab report, spend more on riverside recreational facilities rests on and writing (2nd, three questionable assumptions, namely: that the survey provides a reliable basis for budget planning that the river’s pollution and odor are the only reasons for its limited recreational use that efforts to sieve analysis, clean the foundations and writing (2nd edition), water and analysis lab report, remove the odor will be successful. By showing that each assumption is highly suspect, this essay demonstrates the weakness of the entire argument. For example, paragraph 2 points out that the survey might not have used a representative sample, might have offered limited choices, and might have contained very few questions on water sports. Paragraph 3 examines the tenuous connection between complaints and limited use of the river for quiz show essay recreation. Complaints about water quality and odor may be coming from only a few people and, even if such complaints are numerous, other completely different factors may be much more significant in reducing river usage. Finally, paragraph 4 explains that certain geologic features may prevent effective river clean-up. Sieve Analysis. Details such as these provide compelling support. In addition, careful organization ensures that each new point builds upon the previous ones. For example, note the clear transitions at quiz show scandal the beginning of paragraphs 3 and 4, as well as the lab report, logical sequence of sentences within paragraphs (specifically paragraph 4).
Although this essay does contain minor errors, it still conveys ideas fluently. Note the effective word choices (e.g., rife with . . Summary. . assumptions and may have swayed residents). In addition, sentences are not merely varied; they also display skillful embedding of subordinate elements. Since this response offers cogent examination of the argument and conveys meaning skillfully, it earns a score of 6. The author of this proposal to increase the sieve lab report, budget for Mason City riverside recreational facilities offers an interesting argument but to move forward on the proposal would definitely require more information and thought. While the correlations stated are logical and probable, there may be hidden factors that prevent the City from diverting resources to this project. For example, consider the summary essay, survey rankings among Mason City residents. The thought is sieve analysis that such high regard for water sports will translate into usage.
But, survey responses can hardly be used as indicators of actual behavior. Many surveys conducted after the winter holidays reveal people who list exercise and weight loss as a top priority. Yet every profession does not equal a new gym membership. Even the wording of the survey results remain ambiguous and vague. Essay. While water sports may be among the sieve lab report, residents' favorite activities, this allows for thinking many other favorites. What remains unknown is the lab report, priorities of the general public.
Do they favor these water sports above a softball field or soccer field? Are they willing to sacrifice the municipal golf course for better riverside facilities? Indeed the survey hardly provides enough information to partially agree, discern future use of improved facilities. Closely linked to the surveys is the bold assumption that a cleaner river will result in increased usage. While it is not illogical to expect some increase, at what level will people begin to use the river? The answer to this question requires a survey to find out the reasons our residents use or do not use the river.
Is river water quality the primary limiting factor to usage or the lack of docks and piers? Are people more interested in water sports than the recreational activities that they are already engaged in? These questions will help the city government forecast how much river usage will increase and to assign a proportional increase to the budget. Likewise, the author is optimistic regarding the sieve, state promise to clean the river. We need to hear the source of the voices and consider any ulterior motives. Is this a campaign year and the plans a campaign promise from the state representative? What is the timeline for the clean-up effort?
Will the state fully fund this project? We can imagine the misuse of funds in renovating the riverside facilities only to watch the new buildings fall into dilapidation while the state drags the river clean-up. Last, the author does not consider where these additional funds will be diverted from. The current budget situation must be assessed to determine if this increase can be afforded. Critical Thinking (2nd. In a sense, the analysis lab report, City may not be willing to draw money away from essay partially other key projects from road improvements to sieve analysis, schools and education.
The author naively assumes that the money can simply appear without forethought on show essay, where it will come from. Examining all the various angles and factors involved with improving riverside recreational facilities, the argument does not justify increasing the budget. Analysis Lab Report. While the proposal does highlight a possibility, more information is required to warrant any action. Rater Commentary for writing for philosophy essays Essay Response Score 5. Each paragraph in the body of this perceptive essay identifies and analysis, examines an unstated assumption that is crucial to the argument. Introductions For Philosophy. The major assumptions discussed are: that a survey can accurately predict behavior that cleaning the river will, in itself, increase recreational usage that state plans to clean the sieve analysis, river will actually be realized that Mason City can afford to spend more on riverside recreational facilities.
Support within each paragraph is both thoughtful and thorough. Quiz Scandal. For example, paragraph 2 points out vagueness in analysis the wording of the survey: Even if water sports rank among the favorite recreational activities of Mason City residents, other sports may still be much more popular. Thus, if the first assumption proves unwarranted, the argument to fund riverside facilities rather than soccer fields or golf courses becomes much weaker. Paragraph 4 considers several reasons why river clean-up plans may not be successful (the plans may be nothing more than campaign promises or funding may not be adequate). Thus, the weakness of the summary response essay, third assumption undermines the argument that river recreation will increase and riverside improvements will be needed at all. Instead of dismissing each assumption in isolation, this response places them in a logical order and considers their connections. Note the appropriate transitions between and within paragraphs, clarifying the analysis lab report, links among the assumptions (e.g., Closely linked to foundations critical thinking reading, the surveys or The answer to this question requires. ). Along with strong development, this response also displays facility with language.
Minor errors in punctuation are present, but word choices are apt and sieve, sentences suitably varied in pattern and length. Drug Courts. The response uses a number of rhetorical questions, but the implied answers are always clear enough to support the points being made. Thus, the response satisfies all requirements for a score of 5, but its development is not thorough or compelling enough for a 6. The problem with the arguement is the assumption that if the Mason River were cleaned up, that people would use it for water sports and sieve analysis, recreation. This is not necessarily true, as people may rank water sports among their favorite recreational activities, but that does not mean that those same people have the show essay, financial ability, time or equipment to pursue those interests. However, even if the writer of the arguement is correct in assuming that the Mason River will be used more by the city's residents, the arguement does not say why the sieve analysis, recreational facilities need more money. If recreational facilities already exist along the Mason River, why should the city allot more money to scandal essay, fund them? If the recreational facilities already in existence will be used more in the coming years, then they will be making more money for themselves, eliminating the need for the city government to devote more money to them. According to the arguement, the analysis lab report, reason people are not using the response essay, Mason River for water sports is because of the smell and the quality of water, not because the recreational facilities are unacceptable. If the city government alloted more money to the recreational facilities, then the budget is analysis lab report being cut from some other important city project. Also, if the assumptions proved unwarranted, and critical thinking reading (2nd, more people did not use the river for recreation, then much money has been wasted, not only the money for the recreational facilities, but also the lab report, money that was used to clean up the river to essays, attract more people in the first place.
Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 4. This competent response identifies two unstated assumptions: that cleaning up the sieve, Mason River will lead to increased recreational use that existing facilities along the river need more funding. Paragraph 1 offers reasons why the first assumption is essay india questionable (e.g., residents may not have the necessary time or money for water sports). Similarly, paragraphs 2 and 3 explain that riverside recreational facilities may already be adequate and may, in fact, produce additional income if usage increases. Thus, the response is sieve analysis lab report adequately developed and satisfactorily organized to critical and writing (2nd, show how the argument depends on questionable assumptions. However, this essay does not rise to a score of 5 because it fails to consider several other unstated assumptions (e.g., that the survey is reliable or that the efforts to clean the river will be successful). Analysis. Furthermore, the final paragraph makes some extraneous, unsupported assertions of its own. Mason City may actually have a budget surplus so that cuts to other projects will not be necessary, and cleaning the river may provide other real benefits even if it is not used more for water sports.
This response is generally free of errors in grammar and usage and displays sufficient control of writing introductions for philosophy essays, language to sieve analysis lab report, support a score of Drug courts, 4. Surveys are created to speak for the people; however, surveys do not always speak for the whole community. Sieve. A survey completed by Mason City residents concluded that the residents enjoy water sports as a form of recreation. If that is so evident, why has the river not been used? The blame can not be soley be placed on the city park department. The city park department can only do as much as they observe. The real issue is not the residents use of the river, but their desire for a more pleasant smell and a more pleasant sight. Multiculturalism India. If the city government cleans the river, it might take years for the smell to go away.
If the budget is changed to accomodate the clean up of the Mason River, other problems will arise. Sieve. The residents will then begin to complain about other issues in their city that will be ignored because of the great emphasis being placed on Drug courts, Mason River. If more money is taken out of the budget to clean the river an analysis assumption can be made. This assumption is that the budget for another part of cit maintenance or building will be tapped into to. In addition, to Drug courts, the budget being used to clean up Mason River, it will also be allocated in increasing riverside recreational facilites. Analysis. The government is trying to appease its residents, and one can warrant that the role of the government is to please the people. There are many assumptions being made; however, the government can not make the assumption that people want the river to be cleaned so that they can use it for recreational water activities. The government has to realize the summary conclusion, long term effects that their decision will have on the monetary value of their budget. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 3. Even though much of this essay is tangential, it offers some relevant examination of the argument’s assumptions. The early sentences mention a questionable assumption (that the analysis, survey results are reliable) but do not explain how the survey might have been flawed.
Then the response drifts to irrelevant matters a defense of the city park department, a prediction of budget problems and the problem of pleasing city residents. Some statements even introduce unwarranted assumptions that are not part of the original argument (e.g., The residents will then begin to complain about other issues and This assumption is essay multiculturalism india that the sieve analysis, budget for another part of city maintenance or building will be tapped into). Near the introductions, end, the response does correctly note that city government should not assume that residents want to use the river for recreation. Hence, the proposal to increase funding for riverside recreational facilities may not be justified. In summary, the language in sieve lab report this response is reasonably clear, but its examination of unstated assumptions remains limited and therefore earns a score of 3. This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is agree not logical. First, this statement mentions raking water sports as their favorite recreational activities at the first sentence.
However, it seems to have a ralation between the first sentence and the setence which mentions that increase the quality of the river's water and the river's smell. This is a wrong cause and result to solve the problem. Second, as a reponse to the complaints from residents, the state plan to clean up the sieve analysis lab report, river. As a result, the state expects that water sports will increase. When you look at introductions for philosophy essays two sentences, the result is not appropriate for the cause. Third, the last statement is the sieve lab report, conclusion. However, even though residents rank water sports, the city government might devote the budget to another issue. This statement is also a wrong cause and result. In summary, the foundations reading, statement is not logical because there are some errors in it. The supporting setences are not strong enough to sieve, support this issue. Rater Commentary for Essay Response Score 2.
Although this essay appears to be carefully organized, it does not follow the directions for summary essay conclusion the assigned task. In his/her vague references to causal fallacies, the writer attempts logical analysis but never refers to any unstated assumptions. Furthermore, several errors in grammar and sentence structure interfere with meaning (e.g., This statement looks like logical, but there are some wrong sentences in it which is not logical). Because this response does not follow the directions for sieve lab report the assigned task and contains errors in for philosophy sentence structure and lab report, logical development, it earns a score of 2. The statement assumes that everyone in Mason City enjoys some sort of recreational activity, which may not be necessarily true. The statement also assumes that if the writing introductions essays, state cleans up the river, the use of the analysis, river for quiz show essay water sports will definitely increase. Rater Commentary for sieve lab report Essay Response Score 1. The brevity of partially, this two-sentence response makes it fundamentally deficient.
Sentence 1 states an assumption that is actually not present in the argument, and sentence 2 correctly states an assumption but provides no discussion of its implications. Although the response may begin to address the assigned task, it offers no development. As such, it is analysis clearly extremely brief . providing little evidence of an organized response and earns a score of 1. Register for the GRE General Test. Get never-before-offered official GRE practice tests, scores within minutes for all three measures and essay partially agree, explanations for correct answers! Show schools only the scores you want them to see only with the ScoreSelect ® option. Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Registration, Test Centers and Dates ¡ Tests and Products.
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Payroll Sales/Territory Sales Manager. Coral Gables , FL 33146. The Territory Manager is the catalyst behind Heartlands success as an organization. Working as consultative sales professionals they are responsible for driving revenue growth and bringing in net new business from sieve analysis lab report, prospects. Senior Product Advisor Territory Managers set appointments with business owners to educate them about Heartlands payment processing solution(s) and shed light on what is often predatory business practice leveraged by third party processors. This fully autonomous role is designed for those who are entrepreneurially minded and are highly proficient in outside sales. Heartland competes on best in scandal class security, customer service, and technology. To thrive in sieve analysis lab report our culture one must possess true integrity and the desire to help local business thrive. As a Senior Product Advisors with Heartland, you will work closely with your local Division or Territory Manager to set appointments with business owners over conclusion the phone, face-to-face, through your network, and analysis, via referral partnerships that you build. What makes a great Senior Product Advisor? o Drive for Results.
o Strategic Thinking. Responsibilities of the Drug courts Senior Product Advisor include: Prospecting for analysis, and running dynamic sales presentations. Explaining our value proposition to clients via Atlas CRM on your iPad or tablet. Closing sales of our Payroll/ HR services (Card Processing, Lending Services, Loyalty Marketing) Educating merchants and business owners on the payroll processing industry. Upselling current clients on Drug courts our gift marketing, card and other products and services.
Maintaining regular communication with your Territory / Division Manager. Excellent prospecting, resourcefulness, communication, presentation and networking skills. Works well independently and as part of a team. Incentive-driven sales hunter. Professional demeanor and impeccable integrity. High sense of urgency and innate sales talent. Must enjoy cold-calling and speaking with people face to face. Experience dealing directly with small to mid-sized, local business owners and decision makers. Experience closing in a fast sales cycle: 5 - 10 sales per sieve, month.
Experience in quiz show essay a performance based compensation model. Previous Top Performer status in an outside sales position. Proven track record of pipeline development and closing sales. Ability to pass a background check. Valid drivers license and auto insurance. Membership in a business or merchant association or a networking group a plus. Bilingual skills a plus. Up front Sign-on bonuses+ Residuals + portfolio equity. 401K with company match. Benefits: Medical, Dental, Life, Disability. At Heartland our entrepreneurial business and compensation model incentivizes our sales force with weekly signing bonuses and long-term portfolio ownership with residual income.
These rewards empower 1,100 Heartland sales professionals by giving them the sieve tools they need to realize long-term success and career growth. Heartland Payments Systems is known for our integrity, honesty and transparent business practices. We are interested in individuals who possess similar attributes. If you are committed, driven, resilient, aware and essay, respectful Heartland is the place for you! Heartlands culture is analysis lab report unique in the industry and the #1 reason you should join our Team - how we operate as a company, who we are in the marketplace and the quality of scandal sales professionals who are part of the Heartland Team. We have been voted the sieve analysis #1 company to sell for by Selling Power Magazine for several years. Create a job alert for quiz scandal essay, Payroll Sales/Territory Sales Manager at Coral Gables, FL. Great! You'll now receive job alerts for Payroll Sales/Territory Sales Manager at Coral Gables, FL.
Create a job alert for sieve lab report, Payroll Sales/Territory Sales Manager at Coral Gables, FL. International Hospitality Sales Manager. Posted 15 hours ago. VIEW JOBS 10/6/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-04T00:00 h3Job Description/h3divpstrongPosition Description: /strongInternational Sales Manager/ppbr /strongLocation: /strongMiami, Florida/ppstrongSalary $70K to $80K plus commission and benefits/strongbrbrstrongThe Company: /strongbr /This is an established Miami-based company that was founded to address the specific software needs of timeshare resort properties. The company has a global client base with an expanding portfolio of customers on essay india five continents. The company#39;s software services provide a strategic foundation of comprehensive management tools and a completely extendible platform for on-going development.brbrstrongThe/strongstrong Position: /strongbr /This International Sales Manager position, based in Miami, will lead the sales effort of our Timeshare Management Software to prospects globally, and to develop the analysis existing client base with add-on services. Essay Agree? The territory will have an international focus of Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, Europe and Asia.
This is a professional sales position with the opportunity for lab report, substantial growth.brbrstrongResponsibilities include:/strong/pulliInitiate system sales calls to introductions essays new prospects/liliPromote a line of analysis software upgrades, interfaces and applications to writing essays the existing customer base/liliManage account activity through on-line company#39;s CRM database program./liliPrepare action plans to identify specific targets and to project the sieve lab report number of contacts/liliFollow-up on new leads and referrals/liliWork with Customer Service Department to india maintain world-class customer rapport and lab report, satisfaction/liliParticipate in strategic marketing events such as seminars, trade shows, and telemarketing events/li/ulpbr /strongRequirements:/strong/pulli2-5 years of outside technology sales experience that is directly related to quiz show scandal essay systems for sieve analysis lab report, the hospitality or timeshare industries/liliAbility to travel internationally/li/ululliBilingual in English and Spanish a must/liliAbility to persuade and influence others and to develop and deliver presentations/liliComputer literate with experience in the hospitality industry management technologies and platforms/liliMinimum bachelor#39;s degree/li/ululliMiami, FL-based office/li/ulpbr /strongBenefits:/strong/pulliBase salary and Commission plan/li/ululliMedical, Vision, Dental, amp; Life Insurance/lili401 K/liliEstablished company and essay india, working environment/li/ul/div Pcms Staffing Coral Gables FL. Retail Sales Counter Manager Estee Lauder Cosmetics And. Posted 1 days ago. VIEW JOBS 10/5/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-03T00:00 /For employment consideration, only one application is necessary. Please apply only to the one position you are primarily interested in lab report pursuing./ Nordstrom is a fashion specialty retailer founded on a simple idea: offer each customer the best possible service, quality, value and selection. Critical And Writing Edition)? We're looking for counter managers to lead a cosmetics line while assisting customers with make-up application, skin care and fragrance selections. From attentive salespeople to meticulous tailors and innovative merchants, our teams are comprised of talented people who work hard to delight the customer. When you join a Nordstrom Store, you are welcomed into a family dedicated to sieve creating memorable and rewarding shopping experiences for our customers. Multiculturalism? The ideal candidate is results oriented, a team leader and thrives in a commissioned sales environment. If you share our love for the customers we serve, the merchandise we sell and the work we do, this is sieve a place for you to foundations critical (2nd edition) build a rewarding career.
Responsibilities * Set and achieve personal sales goals while supporting the goals of the team * Greet customers in a timely, professional and engaging manner * Provide honest and analysis, confident feedback to essay customers regarding products * Build lasting relationships with customers by contacting them to follow up on purchases, suggest new products and invite them to sieve lab report upcoming events * Consistently seek new trend and product knowledge to act as an expert for the customer * Open new Nordstrom RewardsTMaccounts as a means of building customer relationships * Build and maintain strong vendor relationships to maximize business results * Manage the scheduling and execution of vendor events and promotions * Communicate business opportunities that include line performance, stock levels and team motivation/recognition * Perform daily department maintenance tasks including stock work, re-merchandising, display, price markdowns, merchandise transfers and light cleaning **Qualifications * Fluency in Spanish preferred * Have a high school diploma, or equivalent (preferred) * Proven ability to summary response essay set and achieve sales goals * Competitive drive and sieve, entrepreneurial confidence to succeed in writing essays a commission-based environment * Demonstrated ability to sieve lab report develop relationships with customers and coworkers * Knowledgeable and enthusiastic about cosmetic trends * Ability to positively and proactively handle customer concerns and prioritize multiple tasks in essay a fast-paced environment * Ability to quickly learn new procedures and processes * Strong organizational and follow-through skills * Excellent communication and interpersonal skills * High level of ownership, accountability and initiative * Cosmetic experience and licensing is not required; we will provide training to all employees in cosmetics Since 1901, Nordstrom has offered a wide variety of quality apparel, shoes and accessories for men, women and children at our stores across the analysis lab report country. Writing For Philosophy Essays? We're proud to be named to analysis lab report /Fortune/™ magazine's list of '100 Best Companies to Work For.' We believe this recognition comes from summary essay, our desire to empower our employees to set their sights high and deliver exceptional service to customers. As a Nordstrom employee, you can feel confident that your health and well-being are among our highest priorities. Sieve Analysis Lab Report? We offer a comprehensive, flexible employee benefits package that includes medical/vision and dental coverage, a generous merchandise discount, an employer-matched 401(K) savings and much more. Partially? We are an equal opportunity employer committed to sieve providing a diverse environment.
The above information has been designed to indicate the general nature and level of work performed by employees within this classification. It is not designed to contain or be interpreted as a comprehensive inventory of all duties, responsibilities and partially agree, qualifications required of employees assigned to analysis this job. Introductions For Philosophy Essays? No visa sponsorship is available for analysis, this position. Nordstrom will consider qualified applicants with criminal histories in a manner consistent with all legal requirements. **Job:** **Retail Sales - Cosmetics* **Title:** *Retail Sales Counter Manager - Estee Lauder Cosmetics and foundations reading and writing (2nd edition), Fragrances - The Shops at Merrick Park* **Location:** *Florida-Coral Gables* **Requisition ID:** *315483* Nordstrom Coral Gables FL. Posted 1 days ago.
VIEW JOBS 10/5/2017 12:00:00 AM 2018-01-03T00:00 Comcast Spotlight, the advertising sales division of Comcast Cable, helps put the power of lab report cable to use for local, regional and national advertisers. Summary Essay? It is focused on sieve analysis providing multi-platform marketing solutions to reach audiences most effectively and efficiently. Headquartered in New York with offices throughout the country, Comcast Spotlight has a presence in nearly 80 markets with approximately 35 million owned and represented subscribers. Comcast Spotlight offers clients easy-to-buy, easy-to-execute options customized around their business goals. We work with clients to provide them with customized, multi-screen media marketing solutions that utilize our suite of products in the way that's best suited to meet their objectives.
Our media solutions provide advertisers with the quiz scandal essay ability to reach, engage and connect with their customers viewing content on any device or screen. **Job Summary:** Responsible for managing the operation for small advertisers to have the sieve lab report opportunity to reach customers in their retail trading areas. Develops a strategic roll-out marketing initiatives including internal and Drug courts, external client communications and events. **Core Responsibilities:** - Oversees the hiring, training, evaluating and assisting of a motivated staff to carry out marketing functions. - Develops relationships with networks to expand online media and network promotions on the regional level. - Writes presentations and analysis lab report, proposals that meet clients' needs and budget requirements - Works with sales management in developing business pitches and sales presentations that support the Drug courts product value proposition. - Provides monthly and quarterly marketing reports. Sieve Analysis Lab Report? - Consistent exercise of independent judgment and discretion in matters of significance. - Regular, consistent and punctual attendance. Must be able to work nights and weekends, variable schedule(s) as necessary. Quiz Show? - Other duties and responsibilities as assigned. **Job Specification:** - Bachelors Degree or Equivalent - Marketing - Generally requires 7 years related experience in media sales Comcast is an lab report, EOE/Veterans/Disabled/LGBT employer Comcast Coral Gables FL. Payroll Sales/Territory Sales Manager. 1. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. For Philosophy Essays? Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter. 2. Analysis Lab Report? Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter.
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922 words Free essay on Entrepreneurship for students. Entrepreneurship does not emerge and develop automatically and spontaneously, its emergence and development purely depend on supportive conditions. Image Source: somenuniquemag.files.wordpress.com/2015/05/entrepreneur-4.jpg. A business enterprise does not exist in a vacuum. It exists in sieve analysis lab report a world of concrete places and things, natural resources, important abstractions and living persons.
The sum of all of these factors and forces is called the entrepreneurial environment. Although, entrepreneurial environment constitutes both internal and external factors. Critical Thinking (2nd Edition). Environment refers to all external factors which have a bearing on the functioning of the enterprise. It refers to lab report those aspects of the surrounding of business enterprise and circumstances of business units which affect or influence its activities and operations and decides its effectiveness. The environment of the business enterprise is always changing and uncertain. “ The environment includes factors outside the firm which can lead to opportunities for or threats to the firm. Although there are many factors, the most important are socio-economic, technological, suppliers, competitors and government”.
Factors for Entrepreneurial growth: Entrepreneurship does not emerge and develop automatically and Drug courts spontaneously, its emergence and development largely depend on various supportive conditions. These supportive depend on various supportive conditions. Lab Report. These supportive conditions or factors are popularly known as economic and non-economic factors for entrepreneurial growth. So entrepreneurial growth is not spontaneous and as such it is dependent on economic, social, political and psychological factors. Various factors affect5ing entrepreneurial growth may be stated in the following diagram. Economic environment influences the entrepreneurship to a great extent.
It refers to all those economic factors which affect the functioning of a business enterprise. Dependence of business on economic environment is total i.e. for summary essay conclusion, input and also to sell the finished goods. Economic environment has reference to the economic system which the entrepreneur has to operate. Sieve. The present day economic environment of business is a complex one. The business sector has economic relations with the government, capital market, household sector and Drug courts with global sector. These sectors together influence the trends and structure of sieve analysis economic system is conditioned by socio-political arrangements. The survival and success of a business enterprise is finally decided by the economic environment and various market conditions.
The important external factors that affect the economic environment of a business are as follows: The general economic conditions prevailing in the country i.e. national income, per capita income, economic resources, distribution of income and assets, economic development, etc are important determinants of business environment. Business cycles and critical thinking reading and writing edition) economic growth of the economy are important factors defining the economic environment. The stage of economic development. The stage of economic development decides the size of the local or domestic market and its dynamism affects the business.
In economics where the sieve lab report, income of the people is rising, business prospects for entrepreneurs will be brighter and investment will get automatic attraction. The economic system operating in the country also affects the business enterprise to a very great extent. Essay India. The economic system of a country may be capitalist, socialist, communist or mixed. Sieve. Government regulations of economic activities depend upon on the nature of the economic system. The economic environment of business enterprise is determined according to the economic system obtained within a country. Multiculturalism India. The economic activities are mainly framed with a purpose of earning, spending and savings.
An economy can be explained in terms of the system of sieve analysis lab report production, consumption, selling and exchange transactions. Without production in a country, system cannot be worked out and other activities are also crucial i.e. consumption, selling and scandal exchange transactions. Economic planning deals with a systematic and sieve analysis lab report co-ordinate effort on the part of the political authority to improve the effectiveness of the economy. India. The government set up the Planning Commission in India in sieve analysis 1950 for the assessment of country’s need of capital and human resources. The various activities of economic planning such as making real assessment of resources, formulation of a plan, implementation of summary response plan, identifying the resources regarding economic growth.
Determining the plan machinery, making periodic assessment etc directly and indirectly influence the economic environment of an entrepreneurship. Economic infrastructure consists of the provision of roads and railways, hydro-electric works, telecommunications, irrigation dams etc. Some attempts have been made to involve the private sector is some areas of infrastructure as power generation, roads construction, building highways and telecommunication but by and large, the responsibility for infrastructure development rests with the government. Economic infrastructure can cater to the supply of analysis market information, encouraging modern designs and undertaking research and development for entrepreneurs, besides undertaking the marketing of Drug courts their products. 5. Availability of Capital Facilities: Capital is one of most dominant prerequisites to establish an enterprise. Availability of capital helps the entrepreneur to bring together the analysis lab report, labour, machine, raw material. Capital is treated is a lubricant to the process of production. An increase in capital investment tends to increase the capital output ratio. This results in increase in conclusion profit which ultimately goes to capital formation. This suggests that as capital supply increases entrepreneurship also increase.
The quality and quantity of labour is another very important component which influence the growth of entrepreneurship in the country. The division of sieve lab report labour is foundations thinking (2nd edition) considered as an important element in economic development and leads to improve the production capacities. Entrepreneurs locate and exploit opportunities. They convert the latent and idle resources like land, labour and capital into national income and analysis wealth in the forms of goods and services. They help to multiculturalism india increase Net National Product and per capita income in the country.
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Essay on Religion: Meaning, Nature , Role and other details (5931 Words) Here is your essay on religion, it’s meaning, nature, role and analysis lab report, other details! Religion is an almost universal institution in human society. It is summary response conclusion, found in all societies, past and present. All the sieve analysis lab report, preliterate societies known to us have religion.
Religion goes back to the beginning of the foundations critical thinking reading and writing edition), culture itself. It is a very ancient institution. There is no primitive society without religion. Image Courtesy : upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9d/Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg/1280px-Religios_collage_%28large%29.jpg. Like other social institutions, religion also arose from the intellectual power of man in response to certain felt needs of men. While most people consider religion as universal and therefore, a significant institution of sieve, societies. Multiculturalism India? It is the foundation on which the normative structure of sieve, society stands. It is the introductions, social institution that deals with sacred things, that lie beyond our knowledge and control. It has influenced other institutions. It has been exerting tremendous influence upon political and economic aspects of life. It is said that man from the earliest times has been incurably religious.
Judaism, Christianity, Islam (Semitic religions), Hinduism and Buddhism; Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto (Chinese-Japanese religions) etc. are examples of the great religions of the world. Religion is concerned with the shared beliefs and practices of human beings. It is the sieve analysis, human response to those elements in the life and environment of mankind which are beyond their ordinary comprehension. Religion is pre-eminently social and is found in nearly all societies. Majumdar and Madan explain that the word religion has its origin in the Latin word Rel (I) igio.
This is derived from two root words. The first root is writing introductions for philosophy essays, Leg, meaning “together, count or observe”. Sieve? The second root is Lig, meaning ‘to bind’. Multiculturalism? The first root refers to belief in and practice of lab report, “signs of thinking reading (2nd, Divine Communication”. Sieve Lab Report? The second root refers to the carrying out those activities which link human beings with the supernatural powers. Thus, we find that the word religion basically represents beliefs and practices which are generally the main characteristics of all religions. Central to all religions is the concept of faith. Religion in this sense is the organisation of faith which binds human beings to their temporal and transcendental foundation. By faith man is distinguished from other beings.
It is essentially a subjective and critical thinking (2nd edition), private matter. Faith is something which binds us together and analysis lab report, is therefore, more important than reason. Pfleiderer defined religion as “that reference men’s life to a word governing power which seeks to grow into a living union with it.” According to multiculturalism india James G. Frazer considered religion as a belief in “Powers superior to man which are believed to direct and control the course of nature and of human life”. As Christopher Dauson writes, “Whenever and wherever man has a sense of dependence on external powers which are conceived as mysterious and higher than man’s own, there is religion, and the feelings of awe and self-abasement with which man is filled in the presence of sieve, such powers is essentially a religious emotion, the root of worship and prayer.” Arnold W. Green defines religion as “a system of Drug courts, beliefs and analysis, symbolic practices and objects, governed by faith rather than by knowledge, which relates man to an unseen supernatural realm beyond the essay conclusion, known and beyond the controllable.” According to Maclver and Page, “Religion, as we understand the term, implies a relationship not merely between man and man but also between man and some higher power.” As Gillin and Gillin says, “The social field of religion may be regarded as including those emotionalized beliefs prevalent in a social group concurring the supernatural plus crest and behaviour, material objects and symbols associated with such beliefs.” Thus, there are numerous definitions of religion given thinkers according to their own conceptions. As a matter of sieve, fact the forms in which religion expresses itself vary so much that it is difficult to agree upon a definition. Some maintain that religion includes a belief in supernatural or mysterious powers and that it expresses itself in overt activities designed to deal with those powers.
Others regard religion as something very earthly and materialistic, designed to achieve practical ends. Sumner and Keller asserted that, “Religion in history, from the earliest to very recent days, has not been a matter of morality at conclusion all but of rites, rituals, observance and ceremony”. Religion, in fact, is not a mere process of mediations about man’s life; it is also a means of preserving the values of life. While it is possible to define religion as belief in God or some super-natural powers, it is well to remember that there can also be a Godless religion as Buddhism. In sociology, the word religion is used in a wider sense than that used in religious books. A common characteristic found among all religions is that they represent a complex of emotional feelings and attitudes towards mysterious and perplexities of life.
According to Radin it consists of two parts: (a) Physiological and (b) psychological. The physiological part expresses itself in such acts as kneeling, closing the eyes, touching the feet. The psychological part consists of supernormal sensitivity to certain traditions and beliefs. While belief in supernatural powers may be considered basic to all religion, equally fundamental is the presence of a deeply emotional feeling which Golden Weiber called the “religion thrill”. If we analyse the great religions of the world, we shall find that each of them contains, five basic elements: (1) belief in supernatural powers, (2) belief in the holy, (3) ritual, (4) acts defined as sinful and (5) some method of salvation. The first basic element of religion is the belief that there are supernatural powers.
These powers are believed to influence human life and control all natural phenomena. Analysis? Some call these supernatural forces God, other call them Gods. India? There are even others who do not call them by any name. They simply consider them as forces in sieve their universe. Thus, belief in the non-sensory, super-empirical world is the first element of religion.
There are certain holy or sacred elements of religion. These constitute the heart of the religion. Foundations Thinking And Writing (2nd? There are certain things which are regarded as holy or sacred. But a thing is holy or sacred not because of a peculiar quality of thing. An attitude makes a thing holy. Lab Report? The sacred character of a tangible thing is not observable to the senses. Sacred things are symbols. They symbolize the things of the unseen, super-empirical world, they symbolize certain sacred but tangible realities. When a Hindu worships a cow, he worships it not because of the kind of animal the cow is, but because of a host of Drug courts, super-empirical characteristics which this animal is imagined to represent. Religious ritual is “the active side of religion.
It is behaviour with reference to super empirical entities and sacred- objects”. Lab Report? It includes any kind of behavior (such as the wearing of conclusion, special clothing and the immersion in certain rivers, in the Ganga for instance), prayers, hymns, creedal recitations, and other forms of reverence, usually performed with other people and in public. It can include singing, dancing, weeping, crawling, starving, feasting, etc. Failure to perform these acts is analysis, considered a sin. Each religion defines certain acts as sinful and profane (unholy). They are certain moral principles which are explained to Drug courts have a supernatural origin. Sieve Analysis? It is believed that the powers of the other world cherish these principles. The violation of these principles creates man’s sense of guilty. It may also bring upon him the disfavour of the supernatural powers.
If the behaviour is not in accordance with the religions code, the multiculturalism, behaviour or act is considered as sinful. A method of salvation is the fifth basic element of religion. Man needs some method by which he can regain harmony with the Gods through removal of guilt. In Hindu religion Moksha or Salvation represents the end of life, the realisation of an inner spirituality in man. The Hindu seeks release from the bondage of Karma, which is the joy or suffering he undergoes as a result of his actions in his life. The ultimate end of life is to attain Moksha. The Buddhist hopes to attain Salvation by being absorbed in the Godhead and entering Nirvana. Sieve Analysis? The Christian has a redeemer in Christ who gave his life for man’s sins. In short, religion is the institutionalised set of beliefs men hold about supernatural forces. It is more or less coherent system of beliefs and practices concerning a supernatural order of beings, forces, places or other entities.
Religion is interwoven with all aspects of human life: with kinship systems, economic and political institutions. Prior to the advent of what may be called as “the age of reason”, religion has been the chief supporter of the spiritual and moral values of life. It has shaped domestic, economic and political institutions. Hence, it is obvious that religion performs a number of functions both for the religious group and for the wider society. These functions of religion are discussed bellow.
1. Religion Helps in the Struggle for Societal Survival: Religion may be said to help in the struggle for societal survival. Rushton Coulborn has shown that religion played a crucial role in the formation and early development of seven primary civilisations: Egyptian Mesopotamian, Indian, Cretan, Chinese, Middle American and Andean. Religion in each of these societies gave its members the courage needed for survival in foundations critical and writing edition) an unfavourable environment, by lab report, giving explanations to certain aspects of the human conditions which could not be explained in a rational manner. In present societies religion also performs this role. By relating the empirical world to the super-empirical world religion gives the agree, individual a sense of security in this rapidly changing world. This sense of security of the individual has significance for sieve analysis the society. Since religion helps man to forget the suffering, disappointments and introductions essays, sorrows in sieve lab report this life’, social dissatisfaction and social unrest become less frequent and the social system continues functioning. 2. Religion Promotes Social Integration: Religion acts as a unifying force and hence, promotes social integration in several ways.
Religion plays an important part in crystallising, symbolising and reinforcing common values and reading and writing (2nd, norms. It thus provides support for social standards, socially accepted behaviour. Common faith, values and norms etc. are significant in unifying people. As the individuals perform rituals collectively their devotion to group ends is enhanced. Through a ritual individual expresses common beliefs and sentiments. It thus helps him to identify himself more with his fellows, and to distinguish himself more from members of other groups, communities or nations. By distinguishing between holy and unholy things, religion creates sacred symbol for the values and this symbol becomes the rallying point for all persons who share the same values. The cow as a sacred symbol of the Hindus, for example, is a rallying point which gives cohesion to Hindu society.
Religion performs its function of integration through social control. It regulates the analysis, conduct of individuals by enforcing moral principles on them and by prescribing powerful sanctions against them for violation. 3. Religion helps to knit the Social Values of a Society into a Cohesive Whole: It is the ultimate source of social cohesion. The primary requirement of society is the common possession of social values by which individuals control the actions of self and others and quiz scandal, through which society is perpetuated. These social values emanate from religious faith. Sieve Analysis Lab Report? Religion is the summary essay, foundation upon which these values rest. Children should obey their parents, should not tell a lie or cheat, women should be faithful to men; people should be honest and sieve lab report, virtuous are some of the social values which maintain social cohesion.
It is religion that asks man to renounce unsocial activities and requires him to accept limitations upon essay his wants and desires. Sieve Lab Report? All the religions have preached love and essay, non-violence. They have emphasized sacrifice and forbearance. 4. Religions Acts as an Agent of Social Control: It is one of the means of informal means of sieve lab report, social control.
Religion not only defines moral expectations for members of the religious group but usually enforces them. It supports certain types of social conduct by Drug courts, placing the powerful sanctions of the sieve analysis, supernatural behind them. It makes certain forms of social behaviour as offences not only against society but also against God. Hence, any violation of the acceptable norm is punishable not only by writing introductions for philosophy essays, God but by society. Hinduism gives sanction to the caste system which regulates social relations of lab report, various classes in India. 5. Partially? Religion Promotes Social Welfare: Religion encourages people to render services to the needy and poor and promote their welfare. It develops philanthropic attitude of people. Help and assistance are rendered to poor and destitute persons due to religion inspiration. It is believed that one can obtain the cherished goal of sieve lab report, religion by way of giving alms and assistance to response conclusion the helpless and sieve analysis, needy persons.
In this way religion promotes the welfare of individuals, groups and for philosophy, community. The priesthood often was dedicated to art and culture. The priests laid the foundations of medicine. Magic supplied the roots of sieve analysis lab report, observation and experimentation from response conclusion which science developed. Sieve? It also inculcated the habit of charity among the people who opened many charitable institutions like hospitals, rest houses, temples to help the needy and the poor.
7. It Rationalizes and summary response essay, Makes bearable Individual Suffering in the known World: Religion serves to soothe the lab report, man in times of his suffering and disappointment. In this world man often suffers disappointment even in the midst of all hopes and achievements. The things for which he strives are in some measure always denied to him. When human hopes are blighted, when all that was planned and striven for has been swept away, man naturally wants something to console and compensate him. When a son dies man seeks to assuage his grief in ritualistic exchanges of condolence.
On God he puts faith and foundations critical thinking reading and writing, entertains the belief that some unseen power moves in mysterious ways to make even his loss meaningful. Faith in God compensates him and sustains his interest in life and makes it bearable. In this way religion helps man to bear his frustrations and encourages him to sieve analysis accept his lot on earth. 8. Religion Enhances Self-importance: It expands one’s self to infinite proportions. Man unites himself with the critical thinking reading (2nd, infinite and lab report, feels ennobled.
Through unity with the infinite the self is made majestic and Drug courts, triumphant. Man considers himself the noblest work of sieve analysis lab report, God with whom he shall be united and his self thus becomes grand and luminous. Besides this, religion shapes domestic, economic and political institutions. Religion supports institutional pattern more explicitly. All the great religions of the world have attempted to regulate kinship relations, especially marriage and family. Political institutions are often sanctioned by essay partially agree, religion: the emperor of China or Japan was sacred; the ruling caste of India was sanctioned by Brahmanism; the kings of France were supposed to sieve lab report rule by divine right.
Religious rites are performed on many occasions in relation to vital events and dominant interests: birth, initiation, marriage, sickness, death, hunting, animal husbandry and so on; and they are intimately concerned with family and kinship interests and with political institutions. Summary Response Conclusion? Religion is the central element in the life of civilisation. Religion has also performed some other services to sieve analysis lab report humanity among which Sumner and Keller included the provision of work, the spread of education, the accumulation of capital and the creation of a leisure class. For thousands of years, religion has exerted a great influence over economic and political life. Even today religion is called upon to support rulers, contacts and other legal procedures. In addition to positive functions of religion, there are some negative aspects of its social functions. Although religion is an integrative force, it may be disruptive for the society as a whole. Sumner and essay multiculturalism india, Keller, Benjamin Kidd, Karl Marx, Thomas F. O’ Dea and others have pointed the dysfunctions of religion.
The dysfunctions of religion are as follows. 1. Religion Inhibits Protests and Hinders Social Changes: According to Thomas F. Lab Report? O’ Dea, religion inhibits protests and impedes social changes which may even prove to be beneficial to the welfare of the society. All protests and conflicts are not always negative. Protests and conflicts often become necessary for bringing out changes. Drug Courts? Some changes would certainly lead to positive reforms. By inhibiting protests and preventing changes religion may postpone reforms. 2. Hampers the Adaptation of Society to Changed Conditions: Social values and norms emanate from religious faith. Some of the norms which lose their appropriateness under changed conditions may also be imposed by religion.
This can “impede a more functionally appropriate adaptation of society to changing conditions.” For example, during the medieval Europe, the Church refused to grant the ethical legitimacy of money lending at interest, despite the great functional need of this activity in a situation of developing capitalism”. Even today, traditional Muslims face religio-ethical problems concerning interest-taking. Sieve? Similar social conflict is evident in writing introductions for philosophy essays the case of birth control measures including abortion, in the Catholic world. 3. Religion may Foster Dependence and Irresponsibility: Religion often makes its followers dependent on religious institutions and leaders. But it does not develop an ability in them to sieve analysis assume individual responsibility. For example, a good number of people in essay India prefer to take the advises of priests and religious leaders before starting some ventures. But they do not take the suggestion of those who are competent in the field. In its course of development religion has supported and promoted evil practices such as cannibalism, slavery, untouchability, human and animal sacrifice etc.
As religion interprets misfortune and suffering in this world as manifestations of the sieve analysis, supernatural order itself, it sanctifies the existing social structure. Religion preaches submission to the existing socio-economic condition and to essay fate. It is analysis, this control function of Drug courts, religion that caused Marx to call religion as “the sigh of the sieve analysis, oppressed creature, the sentiment of Drug courts, a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opiate of the people.” By sanctifying norms and legitimizing social institutions, religion serves as a guardian of the status quo. Religion is the source of many superstitions. These superstitions have caused harm to human being. Superstitions like evil spirits and ghosts cause diseases; poverty is the desire of the sieve analysis lab report, God etc. hinder the welfare of human beings. Religion results in inter-group conflicts by dividing people along religious lines. It is deeply related with conflicts.
Wars and battles have been fought in the name of religion. Sumner and essay, Keller are of the opinion that religion often causes economic wastes. Analysis Lab Report? For example, investing huge sums of money on building temples, churches, mosques, etc., spending much on religious fairs, festivals and ceremonies, spoiling huge quantity of food articles, material things etc., in the name offerings. It leads to waste of human labour, energy and time. Religion creates diversities among people. It creates a gap among them. Drug Courts? In the name of God and sieve analysis, religion, loot, plundering, mass killing, rape and other cruel and inhuman treatments have been meted out to people. Religion has made people blind, dumb and deaf to the reality. They have faith without reasoning which is essay, blind. On the analysis, contrary, it has often made people to become bigots and fanatics. Bigotry and fanaticism have led to persecution, inhuman treatment and misery in the past.
Religion preserves traditions. It preaches submission to the existing conditions and maintenance of status quo. Summary Response Essay Conclusion? Religion is sieve, not readily amenable to social change and progress. 12. Religion Retards Scientific Achievement: Religion has tried to prevent the scientists from introductions for philosophy essays discovering new facts. Sieve Analysis? For example, it tried to suppress the doctrines of Darwin, Huxley and others. By placing high premium on divine power religion has made people fatalistic. They think that all events in life is due to some divine power and hence due to quiz show fate. Analysis Lab Report? As a result, his power and potentiality is undermined.
Thus, religion affects the creativity of man. Marx has strongly criticised religion. For Marx all that was fundamental in the science of society proceeded from the material and quiz, especially the economic sphere. For him therefore religion is, to sieve analysis be sure, superstition, but to stop at this point is to limit religion to merely abstract belief. It leaves the impression that religion may be dislodged simply by new, rational belief. Marx’s sense of the matter is more profound. Merely changing beliefs is not enough. The transformation of an writing introductions for philosophy entire social order is required, for belief is deeply rooted in the social relations of men. Religion, writes Marx, “is the ‘self-consciousness and self-feeling of man who either has not yet found himself or has already lost himself. But man is no abstract being, squatting outside the world. Man is the world of man, the state, and society.
This state, this society produce religion, a perverted world consciousness, because they are a perverted world. Religion is the compendium of sieve analysis lab report, that world, its encyclopedic, its enthusiasm, its moral sanction, its solemn completion, its universal ground for consolation and justification. It is the agree, fantastic realization of the human essence because the human essence has no true reality. Marx believed, like Luduig Feuerbach, that what man gives to God in the form of worship, he takes from himself. That is, man is persuaded through suffering or through false teaching to project what is his to a supernatural being. Sieve Analysis? But he was convinced, unlike Feuerbach, that what is fundamental is not religious forms – against which Feuerbach had urged revolt-but the economic forms of existence. The abolition of religion as the “illusory happiness” of the people is required for their real happiness, declared Marx.
But before religion can be abolished the multiculturalism, conditions which nurture it must be done away with. “The demand to give up the illusions about its condition is the demand to give up a condition which needs illusion”. Marx’s criticism of religion is thus deeply connected with the criticism of right and the criticism of politics. As Marx put it… “The criticism of heaven transforms itself into sieve the criticism of earth, the foundations critical reading (2nd edition), criticism of religion into the criticism of law and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics”. Marx was an atheist as well as a great humanist. He had profound sympathy for all who look up to sieve analysis lab report religion for salvation.
This is amply clear from his following observation: “The criticism of religion ends with the teaching that man is the highest essence of man, hence with the categorical imperative to overthrow all relations in which man is debased, enslaved abandoned…” Change is the essay partially, very essence of a living thing. A living religion must grow, must advance and sieve analysis lab report, must change. No form of religion is static. Drug Courts? In some cases the change may be slow and minor, in others relatively rapid and major. Every religion claims its first principle supreme, original and eternal.
Hence, there is also an element of censure for change. Broadly, there are three types of changes in religion: (i) from simple to complex, (ii) from complex to simple and (iii) mixing forms. Contact with complex form of religion adds many new elements in analysis lab report the simple form of essay, tribal religion. For example, with the sieve, gradual spread of foundations thinking (2nd edition), Vaishnavism in chhotanagpur, the Oraons tribe which lives in that region, began to reorganise traditional faith. There are also examples of simplification of complex form of analysis, religion, specially of rituals and Drug courts, ceremonies. Buddhism for instance, came as a revolt against the Vedic ritual which was both complex and expensive, and analysis, also beyond the common man’s reach. In the 19 century, Brahmo Samaj again tried to simplify the complex nature of Brahmanic Hinduism.
Mixing of more than one form has caused development of new religious organisation. Writing Introductions For Philosophy Essays? The most excellent example is of Sophism. It has evolved from Persian, Zoroastrianism and Arab Islamism. Sikhism, Kabirpantha and many other Santa-Sampradayas of their kind are Sanatan Hinduism, modified by Buddhism and Suphism. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated village towards large, complex, urban, industrialised society the lab report, character of influence of religion on man and his life changes. In the earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind, those concerned with the necessities of critical thinking and writing, life, played a dominant part. As man’s knowledge of natural forces grows, he learns to control them by natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (such as politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastical to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as a power over man and his society loses its importance.
This movement is sometimes referred to as secularisation. Thus secularisation as Bryan Wilson has defined, refers to analysis the process in essay partially which religious thinking, practice and institutions lose social significance. In Europe, secularisation is held to be the outcome of the social changes brought about by urban, industrial society. Sieve Lab Report? It means that religious beliefs and practices have tended to decline in modern urban, industrial societies, particularly among the working class in Western societies. Religion in Western societies has tended to place less emphasis on essay, dogma and more on social values.
It has tried to reconcile its doctrine with scientific knowledge. As Barnes has pointed out religion adapted to analysis lab report our changed conditions of quiz show scandal, life is sieve analysis, worth preserving and it must seek to essay organise. The masses and sieve, guide their activities for the benefit of the society rather than for the purpose of pleasing the God. Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. However, the process of secularisation has affected the domination of religious institutions and symbols.
The process of secularisation was started in India during the British rule. But the process of secularisation took its course unlike Western Europe renaissance and reformation in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. The process was very slow. However, this worldly outlook, rationality and india, secular education gradually affected various aspects of religion in India. Sieve? Various laws of social reformation, modern education, transport and communication contributed towards decline in religiosity among the Hindus. No doubt we are moving from religiosity to secular way of life. But evidences show that religious beliefs have not declined in West as well as in our society. First, organised Christianity plays an important political force in Europe and North America.
Second, the vitality of Zionism, militant Islam (Islamic fundamentalism), radical Catholicism in critical (2nd edition) Latin America and Sikhism, fundamentalism and communalism in India suggest that no necessary connection exists between modernisation and secularisation. All these criticisms are formidable indeed. But it should be noted that the diversity of religious sects and cults in modern societies demonstrates that religion has become an individual matter and not a dominant feature of social life. It can also be argued that, while religion may play a part in ideological struggles against colonialism (as in Iran), in the long run modernisation of society brings about sieve analysis secularisation. The history of the development of religion shows that as mankind moves from small isolated villages towards large, complex, urban, industrial society; the influence of religion on man and his life changes. Essay Multiculturalism India? In the sieve, earlier phases of religion the primary needs of mankind were very much influenced by it. As man’s knowledge of introductions, natural forces grows, he learns to control them by lab report, natural methods, that is, by a detailed scrutiny of their causes and conditions. As religious explanation of the universe is essay multiculturalism, gradually substituted by rational scientific explanations and various group activities (politics, education, art and music) have been increasingly transferred from ecclesiastic to civil and other non-religious agencies, the conception of God as power over man and his society loses its importance. This movement is sometimes referred to sieve analysis as secularization.
Secularism as an ideology has emerged from the dialectic of modern science and Protestantism, not from a simple repudiation of religion and the rise of rationalism. ‘Secularisation’, in the words of Peter Berger, refers to ‘the process by which sectors of society and culture are removed from the domination of religious institutions and Drug courts, symbols. Brayan Wilson argues that the following factors encouraged the development of rational thinking and a rational world view. Firstly, ascetic Protestantism, which created an analysis lab report ethic which was pragmatic, rational controlled and anti-emotional. Foundations Critical Thinking Reading And Writing (2nd Edition)? Secondly, the rational organizations, firms, public service, educational institution, Government, the State which impose rational behaviour upon them. Thirdly, the greater knowledge of social and physical world which results from the development of physical, biological and social sciences. He says that this knowledge is based on reason rather than faith. He claims that science not only explained many facts of life and the material environment in a way more satisfactory (than religion), but it also provided confirmation of its explanation in sieve analysis lab report practical results. The term ‘secularisation’ has been used in different ways. Some have misunderstood, misconceived and misinterpreted the essay india, meaning of the concept.
Others have included discrete and separate elements loosely, put them together that create confusion. The range of meaning attached to the term has become so wide, that David Martin advocates its removal from the sieve analysis, sociological vocabulary. There are two meanings of the word current in modern and modernizing India and Drug courts, even in sieve the whole of this subcontinent. One of the two meanings is found by consulting any standard dictionary. But there is the difficulty in finding the other, for it is non-standard, local meaning which, many like to believe, is Drug courts, typically and distinctively Indian or South Asian. The first meaning becomes clear when people talk of sieve analysis lab report, secular trends in history or economics, or when they speak of secularizing the State.
The word secular has been used in this sense, at least in the English-speaking West, for more than three hundred years. This secularism chalks out an area in public life where religion is not admitted. One can have religion in thinking reading and writing (2nd edition) one’s private life. One can be a good Hindu or a good Muslim within one’s home or at one’s place of sieve analysis, worship. But when one enters public life, one is expected to leave one’s faith behind. In contrast, the non-Western meaning of secularism revolves round equal respect for all religions. In the Indian context the word has very different meaning from its standard use in the English language. It is held that India is not Europe and hence secularism in India cannot mean the same thing as it does in Europe.
What does it matter if secularism means something else in Europe and American political discourse? As long as there are clear and commonly agreed referents for the world in the Indian context, we should go ahead and address ourselves to partially agree the specifically Indian meaning of secularism. Unfortunately the matter cannot be settled that easily. The Indian meaning of secularism did not emerge in ignorance of the analysis, European or American meanings of the word. Indian meaning of secularism is debated in its Western genealogies.
New meaning is acquired by foundations reading (2nd edition), the word secularism in India. The original concept is named by sieve analysis lab report, the English words, Secular and secularism in the Indian languages, by neologisms such as ‘Dharma-nirapekshata. This is translation of summary essay, those English words and dharma-nirapekshata is used to refer to the range of analysis, meanings indicated by the English term. The term dharma-nirapekshata cannot be a substitute of secular or secularism which is standardly used in talking about the role of religion in a modern State or society. Foundations Critical? Dharma-nirapekshata is the outcome of vested interests inherent in our political system. Dharma-nirapekshata is understood in terms of practice of any religion by any citizen. Besides, the State is not to give preference to any religion over another. But this term is irrelevant in a democratic structure and it bears no application in reality because three principles are mentioned in the liberal-doctrine (Liberty which requires that the State, permits the practice of any religion, equality which requires that State not to give preference to any religion and the principle of neutrality). Indian secularism has been inadequately defined ‘attitude’ of goodwill towards all religions, ‘Sarvadharma Sadbhava’.
In a narrower formulation it has been a negative or a defensive policy of religious neutrality on the part of the State. Hence, the analysis lab report, original concept will not admit the Indian case with its range of essay, references. Well-established and well-defined concept of secularism cannot be explained differently in terms of Western or Indian model. To Herberg, ‘authentic religion’ means an emphasis on the supernatural, a deep inner conviction of the analysis lab report, reality of supernatural power, a serious commitment to religious teaching, a strong element of the theological doctrine and a refusal to compromise religious beliefs and values with those of the wider society. If there is any trend of decline in critical and writing (2nd edition) any aspect of religion mentioned above, then it is indicative of the analysis, process of secularisation.
Thus secularization, as Brayan Wilson has defined, refers to the process in Drug courts which religious thinking, practice and sieve analysis lab report, institutions lose social significance. Religion in America is subordinated to Drug courts the American way of life. It means that religious belief and practices have tended to decline. Secularism is taken to mean that one’s religious ideals and beliefs should not interfere in general with social, economic and political field. Paying equal importance or constitutional guarantee for coexistence of religions does not mean secularism. There are other aspects of secularism. Secularism is related to rationalism and sieve lab report, empiricism. Secularisation involves reduction of summary response essay, religious influence on men, elimination of some aspects of it which are not beneficial to human welfare, elimination of superstitions and blind beliefs.
In this manner, the process of secularisation implies the following assumptions. The process of secularisation implies the transformation of analysis lab report, religious institutions as a whole. There is the need to secularise the religious institutions. This means less emphasis on supernatural power, lack of theological doctrine, and desirability to compromise with religious beliefs and values. The religious institutions undergo a process of change in the context of changing society. In a modern society sacred has little or no place, that a society undergoes a process of ‘desacrilisation’ . This means that supernatural forces are no longer seen as controlling the world. Drug Courts? Action is not directed by religious beliefs.
People in sieve analysis lab report a modern society increasingly look upon the world and their own lives without the benefit of religious interpretation. As a result there is a ‘secularisation of consciousness’. Berger argues that the summary, ‘decisive variable for secularisation is the process of rationalisation’. That is the pre-requisite for any industrial society of the modern type. Secularisation also implies rationality. Wilson argues that a rational world view is the sieve lab report, energy of religion.
It is based on testing of arguments and beliefs by rational procedure, on asserting truth by means of factors which can be quantified and objectively measured. Religion is based on faith. Its claim to truth cannot be tested by rational procedures. A rational world view rejects faith which is the basis of religion. It removes the mystery, magic and authority of religion. A secular man lays more emphasis on physical laws rather than supernatural forces. The process of secularisation as the most important component of the conclusion, process of analysis, modernisation is occurring in different forms in various contemporary societies. Like modernisation, this process is good and desirable for the welfare of mankind. Finally, it is both a product and a process. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.
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